Why Stress Hurts, and What You Can Do About It

Stress can boost your performance and get you through a crisis. But it can also lead to serious problems. If you’re overly stressed, you should be concerned about your well-being. The symptoms of stress overload include fatigue, headaches, lack of concentration, difficulty making decisions, increased or decreased eating, inability to control anger, and the increased use of alcohol, caffeine, cigarettes, or drugs.

When our bodies stay stressed for too long, many possible health problems can develop or worsen such as:

  • High blood pressure
  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Decreased immune defenses
  • Cancer
  • Stomach problems
  • Reduced brain functioning

May is National Mental Health Month. In addition to the physical and emotional ailments listed above, stress also can lead to serious mental health problems, like depression and anxiety disorders. Of course, you can’t necessarily remove the sources of stress. But you can figure out ways to cope better with whatever comes your way. And decades of research suggest which steps are most likely to work.

Tips for controlling your stress

Here are 10 tips to help you cope and reduce stress:  

1. Connect with Others. People who feel connected are happier and healthier — and may even live longer.

2. Stay Positive. People who regularly focus on the positives in their lives are less upset by painful memories.

3. Get Physically Active. Exercise can help relieve insomnia and reduce depression, is good for you, and improves self image and esteem.

4. Help Others. People who consistently help others experience less depression, greater calm, and fewer pains.

5. Get Enough Sleep. Not getting enough rest increases risks of weight gain, accidents, reduced memory, and heart problems.

6. Create Joy and Satisfaction. Positive emotions can boost your ability to bounce back from stress.

7. Eat Well. Eating healthy food and regular meals can increase your energy, lower the risk of developing certain diseases, and influence your mood.

8. Take Care of Your Spirit. People who have strong spiritual lives may be healthier and live longer. Spirituality seems to cut the stress that can contribute to disease.

9. Deal Better with Hard Times. People who can tackle problems or get support in a tough situation tend to feel less depressed.

10. Get Professional Help if You Need It. More than 80 percent of people who are treated for depression improve.

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. Employees in this program have access to tools and information that can help improve their overall physical and mental well-being. The program is free to both you and your employees as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Behavior Modification Takes Time, Patience, and Commitment

When it comes to health promotion, we often invest too little and expect too much. To change stubborn behavior patterns, we need to pick target health behaviors and provide a comprehensive, long-term series of interventions.

If you’ve ever been in sales, you probably know that people rarely buy on the first approach. They have to hear about the product through a variety of media — an introductory letter, a phone call, an advertisement, and then a sales call — before they’ll buy.

It’s the same in health promotion. You need to give people time to get acquainted with the idea of making changes, and offer a variety of opportunities to jump in and try. The more exposure they have, the more normal it will seem.

For example, in the 1950s the idea of NOT letting people smoke in our homes would have seemed the height of rudeness. Today, it’s he/she who lights up in your home or office who’s out of line. That cultural change took many years to accomplish. Awareness programs, the Surgeon General-ordered warnings on cigarette packages, stop-smoking programs and workplace smoking policy changes followed. Lawsuits against manufacturers, and smoking cessation aids helped — and through dogged and continuous effort, smoking rates that span the ages have plummeted drastically.

So, if you decide to seriously target a health behavior, determine the most effective interventions and plan for a sustained campaign.

Tips for Choosing Appropriate Interventions

If you’ve already introduced wellness programs and other healthcare interventions, you’re well on your way to improving employee physical and mental health and reducing the workplace costs associated with poor health. Here are a variety of suggested actions that will support your efforts.

  • Talk to other wellness professionals about their experiences with different types of interventions, good and bad. Ask for advice on how to choose, structure, time, and promote activities.
  • Ask senior managers to participate in activities, be members of wellness teams, and lend their support to your interventions.
  • Build on successful activities by making them annual events, preferably at the same time of year. Improve them, and make them a part of your organizational culture and calendar.
  • Get someone to take photographs whenever appropriate for use in newsletters, bulletin boards, and future promotions. Consider videotaping fun events — you can even collect video testimonials for use at company meetings.
  • Plan how you’ll evaluate interventions from the start. Make sure you have a way to measure participation, satisfaction, and related health benefits.
  • There’s a lot to consider when choosing interventions for your wellness program. Don’t overdo, especially if your program is new and your resources are scarce. Give yourself time for adequate research, planning, and promotion. Next year you’ll know so much more, and be able to refine the activities that worked, drop the duds, and add exciting new programs.

To reap the benefits of a wellness program at your company, join CBIA Healthy Connections at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

If You Don’t Snooze, You Lose

It’s spring! As the days get longer and warmer, our activities increase and you might find yourself staying up later and resting less. Establishing and maintaining good sleep habits — typically referred to as “sleep hygiene” —  is as important to your overall health and productivity as diet and exercise. A variety of different practices are necessary to increase your chances of having normal, quality nighttime sleep and full daytime alertness.

The importance of getting a good night’s sleep

Sleep hygiene is important for everyone, from childhood through adulthood. A good sleep hygiene routine promotes healthy sleep and daytime alertness. Good sleep hygiene practices can prevent the development of sleep problems and disorders.

Sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness are the most telling signs of poor sleep hygiene. If one is experiencing a sleep problem, he or she should evaluate their sleep routine. It may take some time for the changes to have a positive effect. If you’re taking too long to fall asleep, or awakening during the night, you should consider revising your bedtime habits and consider how much time you spend in bed, which could be too much or too little.

What are some examples of good sleep hygiene?

The most important sleep hygiene measure is to maintain a regular sleep and wake pattern seven days a week. It is also important to spend an appropriate amount of time in bed, not too little, or too excessive. This may vary by individual; for example, if someone has a problem with daytime sleepiness, they should spend a minimum of eight hours in bed, if they have difficulty sleeping at night, they should limit themselves to seven hours in bed in order to keep the sleep pattern consolidated. In addition, good sleep hygiene practices include:

  • Avoid napping during the day; it can disturb the normal pattern of sleep and wakefulness.
  • Avoid stimulants such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol too close to bedtime. While alcohol is well known to speed the onset of sleep, it disrupts sleep in the second half as the body begins to metabolize the alcohol, causing arousal.
  • Exercise can promote good sleep. Vigorous exercise should be practiced in the morning or late afternoon. A relaxing exercise, like yoga, can be done before bed to help initiate a restful night’s sleep.
  • Food can be disruptive right before sleep; stay away from large meals close to bedtime. Also dietary changes can cause sleep problems – for example, it’s not a good time to start experimenting with spicy dishes. And, remember, chocolate contains caffeine, though it has many helpful properties, as well.
  • Ensure adequate exposure to natural light. This is particularly important for older people who may not venture outside as frequently as children and adults. Light exposure helps maintain a healthy sleep-wake cycle.
  • Establish a regular relaxing bedtime routine. Try to avoid emotionally upsetting conversations, activities and TV shows before trying to go to sleep. Don’t dwell on, or bring your problems to bed.
  • Associate your bed with sleep. It’s not a good idea to use your bed to watch TV, listen to the radio, or read.
  • Make sure that the sleep environment is pleasant and relaxing. The bed should be comfortable, the room should not be too hot or cold, or too bright.

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. Employees in this program have access to tools and information that can help improve their overall physical and mental well-being. The program is free to both you and your employees as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Chocolate’s Natural Healing Compounds

Halloween and Valentine’s Day are long past, Easter is this month and every day is somebody’s birthday, anniversary or another cause for celebration. Of course, we learned long ago that we don’t need a special occasion to shower ourselves in chocolate, but many of us may never have realized that something so delicious and indulgent can actually be good for us!

An antioxidant powerhouse

Chocolate is packed with natural compounds called antioxidants that scientists have discovered can protect your body and promote good health. In fact, ounce for ounce, dark chocolate and cocoa have more antioxidants than do foods like blueberries, green tea and red wine. Surprised? Many people are. That’s because they forget that chocolate is a plant-based food.

“The main ingredient in chocolate is cocoa beans — the seeds of the fruit of the cacao tree,” says Debra Miller, Ph.D., Senior Nutrition Scientist with the Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition, who has studied chocolate’s health benefits extensively. “Because of modern manufacturing and the common form of the ‘chocolate bar’, most people today don’t associate chocolate with its natural beginnings, but chocolate is essentially food of the earth.”

Scientists theorize that plants naturally produce antioxidants to help them survive harsh growing conditions and to protect them from environmental stress. These same compounds can aid the humans who eat the plants too. Recent studies suggest that the antioxidants in foods may reduce the risk of many kinds of illness, from heart disease to cancer. Antioxidants like those found in dark chocolate and cocoa have also been linked to some of the hallmarks of good cardiovascular health such as enhanced blood flow, healthy cholesterol levels and, in some cases, reduced blood pressure.

Dark chocolate and cocoa contain high levels of cell-protecting antioxidant compounds. Two tablespoons of natural cocoa have more antioxidant capacity than four cups of green tea, one cup of blueberries and one and one-half glasses of red wine.

Studies show that as soon as 30 minutes after eating one 40-gram serving of dark chocolate, blood levels of the two main antioxidants in chocolate, epicatechin and catechin, are heightened. They peak two hours after consumption and are cleared from the body after about six hours.

Antioxidants work by protecting your cells from damaging molecules called free radicals. These are basically unstable oxygen molecules that can trigger changes in the structure of normally healthy cells. This damage is thought to be an underlying cause of many chronic diseases. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals.

Free radicals are a natural by-product of life, but as we get older the natural antioxidants our body makes to fight them off begin to decline, experts say. The best way to recharge your antioxidant power is to get them through your diet. Now you know why your mom and your doctor always told you to eat your fruits and vegetables!

The kinds of antioxidants found in chocolate are called polyphenols, a large class of molecules found in fruits and vegetables like oranges, soybeans and berries. Dark chocolate and cocoa are particularly high in a sub-class of those compounds called flavanols, which are also found in red grapes and tea, hence the well-known benefits of red wine and green tea.

The reason dark chocolate and cocoa rank so high is that the antioxidants are very concentrated. Consider this: More than 10 percent of the weight of the dry raw cacoa beans consists of polyphenols alone. So the next time you’re feeling celebratory, or a little down, turn to chocolate – preferably dark – and you’ll be doing you and your body a favor!

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. Employees in this program have access to tools and information that can help improve their overall physical and mental well-being. The program is free to both you and your employees as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Alcohol’s Effects Go Far Beyond Hangovers

Alcohol is part of our culture — we use it to celebrate and socialize, and it is part of many of our religious ceremonies. Many people enjoy the experience of being lightly intoxicated, including reduced inhibitions and stimulation, and drinking is a normal part of many of our every-day rituals and customs here in the United States and around the world.

But drinking too much — on a single occasion or over time — can have serious consequences for our health. These consequences go far beyond having a headache and a hangover that make us uncomfortable but go away relatively quickly.

Most people recognize that excessive drinking can lead to accidents and dependence, and can cause liver disease. But that’s only part of the story. Unlike other drugs, alcohol disperses in all body tissues and therefore has the potential to harm many organ systems. Alcohol abuse can damage organs, weaken the immune system, and contribute to cancers.

Plus, much like smoking, alcohol affects different people differently. Genes, environment, and even diet can play a role in whether you develop an alcohol-related disease.  

On the flip side, some people may actually benefit from drinking alcohol in small quantities. Alcohol’s effect on your heart is the best example of alcohol’s dual effects. Drinking a lot over a long time or too much on a single occasion can cause heart problems including high blood pressure, strokes, arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy, a condition that causes your heart muscle to weaken and droop. But research also shows that healthy people who drink moderate amounts of alcohol (such as red wine) may have a lower risk of developing coronary artery disease than people who never drink at all.

While drinking in moderation may not affect the health of your liver, heavy drinking can definitely take its toll. Your liver helps rid your body of substances that can be dangerous, including alcohol. By breaking down alcohol, your liver produces toxic byproducts that damage liver cells, promote inflammation, and weaken the body’s natural defenses. This can make conditions ripe for disorders like steatosis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis, and dangerous inflammations like hepatitis, to develop.

Pancreatic inflammations can also develop in response to drinking too much. Alcohol causes the pancreas to produce toxic substances that can eventually cause inflammation and swelling in tissues in blood vessels. This inflammation, called pancreatitis, prevents the pancreas from digesting food and converting it into fuel to power your body.

Aside from damaging your organs, drinking too much alcohol can also increase your risk of developing certain cancers, including those of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, liver, and breast.

Alcohol also can weaken your immune system, making your body a much easier target for disease. Drinking a lot on a single occasion slows your body’s ability to ward off infections, even up to 24 hours after getting drunk. Chronic drinkers are more likely to contract diseases like pneumonia and tuberculosis than people who do not drink too much.

So while some light to moderate drinking may not hurt you, it’s important to understand the toxic, longer-term effects of alcohol and use common sense when drinking any alcoholic beverage. To learn more about the health effects of alcohol, please download NIAAA’s newest publication, Beyond Hangovers: Understanding Alcohol’s Impact on Your Health.

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. Employees in this program have access to tools and information that can help improve their overall physical and mental well-being. The program is free to both you and your employees as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Save Your Company Money by Assuring Access to Substance Abuse Treatment

Did you know that about 19.2 million U.S. workers (15%) reported using or being impaired by alcohol at work at least once in the past year? And that doesn’t even begin to address the effects alcohol and other substances have on employee performance, health, service, quality and safety.

A substance-use disorder refers to misuse of, dependence on or addiction to alcohol or other drugs. Alcohol is by far the most widely used drug in the United States: 11% of workers have a problem with alcohol. About 20.4 million people use illegal drugs and 7 million use prescription drugs non-medically. Most drug users are employed: Of the 17.9 million illicit drug users aged 18 or older (based on a 2006 study), 13.4 million (74.9%) were employed either full or part time.

The costs of care – and of not caring               

If you were to lose an employee to health issues or repercussions from drinking, replacing them costs from 25 percent to almost 200 percent of annual compensation — not including the loss of institutional knowledge, service continuity, coworker productivity and morale that can accompany employee turnover.               

By investing in substance abuse treatment, employers can reduce their overall costs. Substance-use disorders cost the nation an estimated $276 billion a year, with much of the cost resulting from lost work productivity and increased healthcare spending. Given that three quarters of the people with drug or alcohol problems are employed, employers have a major stake in ensuring that employees have access to substance abuse treatment.

Substance abuse imposes a variety of costs on employers:

Increased healthcare and insurance costs

  • Healthcare costs for employees with alcohol problems are twice those for other employees.
  • People who abuse drugs or alcohol are three and one-half times more likely to be involved in a workplace accident than other workers.

Reduced productivity

  • Employees who use drugs, consume alcohol at work, or drink heavily away from work are more likely than other employees to exhibit job withdrawal behaviors, such as spending work time on non-work-related activities, taking long lunch breaks, leaving early, or sleeping on the job.
  • Employees who drink heavily off the job are more likely to experience hangovers that cause them to be absent from work; show up late or leave early; feel sick at work; perform poorly; or argue with their coworkers.

More turnover  

  • People with drug or alcohol problems were more likely than others to report having worked for three or more employers in the previous year.

Investing in Treatment Can Save Employers Money

When workers with substance use disorders get treatment both employers and employees benefit through:

  • Better employee health and lower total healthcare costs over time
  • Less absenteeism
  • Improved job performance
  • Reduced costs associated with short- and long-term disability and workers’ compensation
  • Fewer accidents and less corporate liability

Two types of employer sponsored programs can help employers reduce costs

There are generally two comprehensive workplace programs that incorporate wellness and substance abuse education components. They are Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) that provide substance abuse screening and treatment referral; and comprehensive workplace programs that incorporate wellness and substance abuse education components. Since the savings from investing in substance abuse treatment can exceed costs by a ratio of 12 to 1.6, the “healthy” return on your investment is like money in your pocket.

To reap the benefits of a wellness program at your company, join CBIA Healthy Connections at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Improving Your Nutrition from the Ground Up

It’s common knowledge that a healthy diet is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, but most people have trouble figuring out what to do when planning a complete diet overhaul. During National Nutrition Month, the American Dietetic Association reminds everyone that an easy way to focus on eating better is to start with the basics: Build your nutritional health from the ground up.

“By starting slowly and giving yourself a good foundation, you can work towards a healthier life,” says registered dietitian and ADA spokesperson Toby Smithson. “Change doesn’t have to be dramatic to make a difference.”

Smithson suggests ways to improve your nutrition from the ground up:

  1. Focus on fruits and veggies: “Take a good look at your current diet and you’ll probably realize you’re not eating enough fruits or vegetables,” says Smithson. “Add a serving each day to one meal and increase it every few weeks. Adding more of these foods into your diet is important whether you buy frozen, fresh or organic.”
  2. Look locally: From farmer’s markets to community-supported agriculture, you have many options to find new, fresh foods in your area. “This can be a great way to eat well and support your community at the same time,” Smithson says.
  3. Make calories count: “Too often, people think of foods as good or bad and that only those on the ‘good foods’ list are okay to eat,” says Smithson. “When you’re choosing between options, focus instead on the one with more of the vitamins and nutrients that you need. Sometimes, foods with fewer calories aren’t always the healthiest options.” To figure out how many calories you need to achieve a healthy weight, visit www.choosemyplate.gov/.
  4. Test your taste buds: A healthy eating plan emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or fat-free dairy and includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans and nuts. “Those are the basics, but within this wide range there are always opportunities to try new things and find new favorites,” Smithson says. “Expand your horizons. Try a fish you’ve never eaten before or find a new vegetable recipe. By testing yourself, you might find new healthy favorites to add to your regular grocery list.”
  5. Trick yourself with treats: “A healthful diet doesn’t mean deprivation,” says Smithson. “If you have a sweet tooth, have fruit and yogurt for dessert. If you want a snack in the afternoon, have some trail mix or nuts. There is no reason to go hungry just because you’re making healthful changes.”

For more tips on building your healthy diet from the ground up, during National Nutrition Month and all year long, visit www.eatright.org  and click on “For the Public.”

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. Employees in this program have access to tools and information that can help improve their overall physical and mental well-being. The program is free to both you and your employees as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

March is the Best Time for Renewing Your Wellness Resolutions

Like millions of other Americans, you probably made some New Year’s resolutions regarding your health. Maybe you wanted to lose weight, or exercise more, or quit smoking. And like the vast majority of Americans who made such resolutions, you probably won’t meet your goal. Polls have found that by springtime, 68% of Americans who made a New Year’s resolution have broken it. After one year, only 15% claim success.

But don’t despair. The secret to self-improvement is persistence, not perfection. Spring is the perfect opportunity to renew your resolutions, or to make new ones.

“People do it all wrong,” says Robert Butterworth, PhD, a clinical psychologist in Los Angeles. “The worst time to make New Year’s resolutions is on New Year’s Eve. We’re exhausted after the holidays. We’re stressed out. The weather is bad. Everybody is talking about it and watching what your resolutions are.”

Still, at least half of Americans make New Year’s resolutions, which is why health clubs, diet programs, and smoking-cessation clinics spend so much on advertising at the end of the year; they know millions of people on Dec. 31 are going to resolve to lose weight and get fit.

Springtime Advantages

Spring, however, is a better time to set such goals, according to Butterworth. “The weather is getting better,” he says. “It’s a less stressful time; we feel more energized.” Spring is also an ideal time to reassess your resolutions and modify your strategy for success, according to psychologist Stephen Kraus, PhD.

“I do it quarterly,” Kraus says. “One of the goals my wife and I set this year was to get back into meditation. We got off to a pretty good start in January, but one thing led to another and we fell out of the habit. By March it was time for us to look at our goals and make plans for the second quarter. And we recommitted ourselves to that goal.”

Ultimately, Kraus says, success depends on two things — desire and the right strategy. The trick, therefore, is to constantly renew your desire to achieve your goal and keep modifying your strategy until you achieve it.

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. Employees in this program have access to tools and information that can help improve their overall physical and mental well-being. The program is free to both you and your employees as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Colorectal Cancer Screening Saves Many Lives

Excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States. The American Cancer Society’s most recent estimates for the number of colorectal cancer cases in the United States for 2010 are:

  • 102, 900 new cases of colon cancer (49,470 in men and 53,430 in women)
  • 39,670 new cases of rectal cancer (22,620 in men and 17,050 in women)

Overall, the lifetime risk for developing colorectal cancer is about 1 in 19 (5.2%). This risk is slightly higher in men than in women. A number of other factors may also affect a person’s risk for developing colorectal cancer.

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death in men and women when both sexes are combined. It was expected to cause more than 50,000 deaths in 2010.

The death rate from colorectal cancer has been dropping for more than 20 years. There are a number of likely reasons for this. One is that polyps, or growths, are being found by screening and removed before they can develop into cancers. Screening also allows more colorectal cancers to be found earlier, when the disease is easier to cure. In addition, treatment for colorectal cancer has improved over the last several years. As a result, there are now more than 1 million survivors of colorectal cancer in the United States.

Regular colorectal cancer screening is one of the most powerful weapons for preventing colorectal cancer. Screening is the process of looking for cancer in people who have no symptoms of the disease. From the time the first abnormal cells start to grow into polyps, it usually takes about 10 to 15 years for them to develop into colorectal cancer. Regular screening can, in many cases, prevent colorectal cancer altogether. Several tests are used to screen for colorectal cancer in people with an average risk of colorectal cancer. Ask your doctor which tests are available where you live and which options might be right for you.

People who have no identified risk factors (other than age) should begin regular screening at age 50. Those who have a family history or other risk factors for colorectal polyps or cancer should talk with their doctor about starting screening at a younger age and/or getting screened more frequently.

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. Employees in this program have access to tools and information that can help improve their overall physical and mental well-being. The program is free to both you and your employees as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Decreasing Tobacco Use Among Workers: Smoke-Free Policies Reduce Health Costs

Smoke-free policies include private-sector rules and public-sector regulations that prohibit smoking in indoor workplaces and designated public areas. Private-sector smoke-free policies may establish a complete ban on tobacco use on worksite property or restrict smoking to designated outdoor locations. Community smoke-free ordinances establish smoke-free standards for all or for designated indoor workplaces and public areas.

Interventions that work

A worksite may adopt a smoke-free policy alone or in combination with additional interventions to support tobacco-using employees who might seek assistance in quitting. These additional interventions include the following:

  • Tobacco-cessation groups
  • Educational materials or activities
  • Telephone-based cessation support
  • Counseling and assistance from healthcare providers
  • Access to effective pharmacologic therapies

Results from systematic reviews

Thirty-five studies in a recent review of companies introducing smoking-cessation efforts produced the following results:

  • Prevalence of tobacco use: median decrease of 3.4 percentage points
  • Tobacco use cessation: median increase in tobacco quit rates of 6.4 percentage points
  • Attempts to quit: median increase of 4.1 percentage points
  • Number of cigarettes smoked per day: median reduction of 2.2 cigarettes smoked per day

Economic effectiveness of smoking-reduction efforts

A review of the economic effectiveness of these interventions was conducted. Studies demonstrated a range of outcomes:

  • An assessment of a smoke-free workplace policy found a cost of $526 per quality of life adjusted year (QALY) compared to a cost of $4,613 per QALY for a free nicotine replacement therapy program
  • There is a collective net benefit from smoke-free policies ranging from $48 billion to $89 billion per year in the United States
  • A smoke-free workplace policy could prevent about 1,500 heart attacks and 350 strokes in one year with approximately $55 million in direct medical cost savings
  • An employer could potentially save $10,246 per year for every smoker who quits due to a smoke-free workplace policy.

These results were based on a systematic review of all available studies, conducted by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to worksite health promotion and prevention of tobacco use.

Source: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/worksite/smokefreepolicies.html

To reap the benefits of a wellness program at your company, join CBIA Healthy Connections at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!