Is Facebook Making You Sick?

Chances are you’re reading this article on your laptop or a mobile device. Hopefully you’re not reading it late at night, because if you are, it may be making you sick.  That’s because the artificial light from computer and smart phone screens is interfering with our ability to sleep properly. And when we don’t sleep well, or enough, we fail to benefit from our body’s natural restorative abilities.

But that’s only one piece of the bad news relating to electronic gadgets and our health. For all it’s given us, modern technology also is hurting our physical and emotional health, and changing behaviors in adults and children in ways that will have far-reaching, yet still undetermined consequences.

Melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep and wakefulness in humans and animals. It is produced in darkness. Researchers have determined that the blue light from our electronic devices affects melatonin production and melanopsin stimulation, which throws off our circadian rhythms, our internal body clock. This interrupts or prevents deep, restorative sleep, causing an increase in stress and depressive symptoms.

Research shows that interactive technologies such as video games, cell phones and the Internet might affect the brain differently than those which are “passively received,” such as TV and music. That’s even more meaningful when it comes to our kids.

Children’s brains are much more sensitive to electronics use than most of us realize. In fact, contrary to popular belief, it doesn’t take much electronic stimulation to throw a sensitive and still-developing brain off track. Many parents mistakenly believe that interactive screen-time – such as the Internet or social media use, texting, emailing, and gaming — isn’t harmful, especially compared to passive screen time like watching TV. In fact, interactive screen time is more likely to cause sleep, mood, and cognitive issues, because of hyper-arousal and compulsive use.

Recent statistics show that 63 percent of American Facebook users log on to the site daily, while 40 percent of users log on multiple times a day. If you or your kids are spending a lot of time in chat rooms and on social-networking sites, a number of studies now suggest that this can be associated with depression, particularly in teens and preteens.

Internet addicts may struggle with real-life human interaction and a lack of companionship, and they may have an unrealistic view of the world. Some experts even call it “Facebook depression.” In a 2010 study, researchers found that many people ages 16 to 51 spent an inordinate amount of time online, and that they had a higher rate of moderate to severe depression. However, the researchers noted that it is not clear if Internet overuse leads to depression or if depressed people are more likely to use the Internet.

We all have our own reasons for using social media, but one of the main reasons we use it is for self-distraction and boredom relief. In essence, social media delivers reinforcement every time a person logs on. It may seem harmless to knock out a few emails before bed or unwind with a favorite movie, but by keeping our mind engaged, technology can trick our brain into thinking that it needs to stay awake. When surfing the web, seeing something exciting on Facebook, or reading a negative email, those experiences can make it hard to relax and settle into slumber. After spending an entire day surrounded by technology, our minds need time to unwind.

Why we need technology down time

Research into the use of technology produced other startling results, including sleep disorders and an increase in depressive symptoms from heavy cell phone use or the regular use of computers at night. Researchers have established that screen time:

  • Disrupts sleep and de-synchronizes the body clock. Just minutes of screen stimulation can delay melatonin release by several hours and desynchronize our body clock. Once the body clock is disrupted, all sorts of other unhealthy reactions occur, such as hormone imbalance and brain inflammation. Plus, high arousal doesn’t permit deep sleep, and deep sleep is how we heal.
  • Desensitizes the brain’s reward system. Many children are “hooked” on electronics. In fact, gaming releases so much dopamine — the “feel-good” chemical — that on a brain scan it looks the same as cocaine But when reward pathways are overused, they become less sensitive, and more and more stimulation is needed to experience pleasure. Meanwhile, dopamine is also critical for focus and motivation, so even small changes in dopamine sensitivity can wreak havoc on how well a child feels and functions.
  • Produces “light-at-night.” Light-at-night from electronics has been linked to depression and even suicide risk in numerous studies. Animal studies show that exposure to screen-based light before or during sleep causes depression, even when the animal isn’t looking at the screen. Sometimes parents are reluctant to restrict electronics use in a child’s bedroom because they worry the child will get upset — but to the contrary, removing light-at-night is protective.
  • Induces stress reactions. Both acute stress (fight-or-flight) and chronic stress produce changes in brain chemistry and hormones that can increase irritability. Cortisol, the chronic stress hormone, seems to be both a cause and an effect of depression — creating a vicious cycle. Additionally, both hyper-arousal and addiction pathways suppress the brain’s frontal lobe, the area where mood regulation actually takes place.
  • Fractures attention, and depletes mental reserves. Experts say that what’s often behind explosive and aggressive behavior is poor focus. When attention suffers, so does the ability to process one’s internal and external environment, so little demands become big ones. By depleting mental energy with high visual and cognitive input, screen time contributes to low reserves. One way to temporarily “boost” depleted reserves is to become angry, so meltdowns actually become a coping mechanism.
  • Reduces physical activity levels and exposure to “green time.” Research shows that time outdoors, especially interacting with nature, can restore attention, lower stress, and reduce aggression. So time spent with electronics reduces exposure to natural mood enhancers, as well as to chemicals which also keep us alert, and wake us up.

Most Americans admit to using electronics a few nights a week within an hour before bedtime. But to make sure technology isn’t harming your slumber, give yourself at least 30 minutes of gadget-free and TV–free transition time before hitting the hay. In fact, it’s even better if you can make your bedroom a technology-free zone. And just because you’re not using your cell phone before bed doesn’t mean that it can’t harm your sleep: Keeping a mobile within reach can still disturb slumber, thanks to the chimes of late-night texts, posts, emails, calls, or calendar reminders.

This is a growing and serious public health hazard that isn’t being adequately acknowledged and addressed by both the medical community and technology industries. About 72 percent of children ages six to 17 sleep with at least one electronic device in their bedroom, which leads to getting less sleep on school nights compared with other kids. The difference adds up to almost an hour per night, and the restful quality of their sleep is negatively affected too. To ensure a better night’s rest, parents should limit their kids’ technology use in the bedroom, and can be solid role models and improve their own health by doing the same.


Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Emotional Wellness During the Holidays

The holidays are great, aren’t they? They’re also exciting and fun, right?  Sure, they’re stressful, expensive and busy, too . . . and can be nostalgic and a little sad, especially when we think of those who aren’t alive anymore, or who live far away, or have fallen out of our lives. Maybe we’re feeling a little isolated, or alone, and all this happiness around us is just making us more miserable. And wow, somehow another year has passed, and we’re kind of in the same rut – and now we have to put on our best mask to face family and old friends. Honestly, January can’t come fast enough.

Perhaps the best adjective for this season is “complicated.” For many people it’s a time of joy and happiness, but for others, sadness, depression and sorrow.  Add to this potent mix the stress of running around, shopping, cooking, parties, cold weather and time and fiscal constraints, and we have the makings of a poignant spicy holiday chili and the accompanying emotional heartburn.

It’s important to find ways to calm ourselves in the moment, to find perspective and to reduce stress and anxiety. Some people find release through exercise or physical activity, others through music, cooking, reading or scores of other favored activities. But we can’t always just drop whatever we’re doing to prepare a meal, take a hike in the mountains, or practice yoga stretches. Sometimes, we need to simply catch our emotional breath.

Meditation and the pursuit of “mindfulness” are valuable approaches to gaining control of attention span, focus and concentration, and for reducing stress. Meditation takes guidance, practice and, for some, years to truly understand and incorporate. It’s a cognitive “cleansing” that allows us to relax, rest our brains, regain contact with our bodies, and establish context for things going on around us. Millions of people around the world incorporate daily meditation in their lives, and find it extremely valuable and healthy.

Mindfulness essentially means moment-to-moment awareness. Although it originated in the Buddhist tradition, you don’t have to be Buddhist to practice or find value in its benefits. In fact, Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is being taught in colleges, yoga studios, meditation centers and workplaces across America.

The benefits can be dramatic — in addition to supporting overall health and well-being, mindfulness has been linked to improved cognitive functioning and lower stress levels. That’s even more important when we are being constantly bombarded by email, texts, Facebook, and Twitter.

When we are mindful we become keenly aware of ourselves and our surroundings by simply observing these things as they are. We are aware of our own thoughts and feelings, but do not react to them in negative or distracted ways. There’s no “autopilot” when we’re focused. By not labeling or judging the events and circumstances taking place around us, we are freed from our normal tendency to react to them, and shift from a subjective to an objective mindset.

Mindfulness experts teach us to not resist our mind’s natural urge to wander, but to train it to return to the present, and to center ourselves in the moment. Mindfulness enhances emotional intelligence, notably self-awareness, and the capacity to manage distressing emotions. It also reduces stress, lowers blood pressure, improves memory and lessens depression and anxiety. There are many classes offered locally, as well as books and online instruction. Additionally, here are simple tips that we can incorporate every day, even at work:

  • Spend at least three to five minutes a few times each day doing nothing but breathing and relaxing in the moment, whether at work or at home.
  • Manage distractions like noisy co-workers by tuning into them, instead of letting them drive us crazy. . . by noticing the sounds and their effects on our bodies, we rob the distraction of its power over us.
  • Pay attention to walking by slowing our pace and feeling the ground against our feet.
  • Anchor our day with a contemplative morning practice, such as breathing, Zen, yoga, meditation or even a walk.
  • Before entering the workplace, we should remind ourselves of our organization’s purpose and our personal and professional goals, and mentally recommit in that moment to our vocation and to being a leader.
  • Throughout the day, pause to make sure we’re fully present before undertaking the next critical task, call or meeting.
  • Practice “strategic acceptance,” which is not seeing every setback in catastrophic terms. When we feel our stress levels rising, we shouldn’t try to force ourselves to cheer up or calm down — rather, simply accept how we feel. That doesn’t mean to ignore the problem, but instead, to observe and accept reality in that moment before making a plan to tackle the problem.
  • Find time to unplug from electronic gadgets, phones, computers and video games — studies have shown that excessive reliance on technology can make us more distracted, impatient and forgetful.
  • Get in touch with our senses by noticing the temperature of our skin and background sounds around us.
  • Review the day’s events at the close of the day to prevent work stresses from spilling into our home lives
  • Before going to bed, engage in some relaxing or spiritual reading.

There are so many simple, inexpensive things we can do to regain emotional control, and to help reduce or prevent stress in our lives – at the holidays, or any time of year. Learning to appreciate and be grateful for what we have is a wonderful gift, and seeing the New Year as a fresh start can be liberating. But we often need perspective and useful coping mechanisms to get us to this cheerier and healthier horizon, and to help us avoid the “holiday blues.”

 


Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Falling Into a Healthy Rhythm

While it’s only October and the autumn leaves haven’t even peaked, the pull of the end-of-year chaos is already sucking us in like a dark hole absorbing matter. Halloween is right around the corner, and Thanksgiving isn’t far behind. We know what’s coming, and it can’t be stopped or even slowed. Youthful exuberance and idealism aside, we’ll soon be smack in the middle of the craziest time of the year, and for many, the toughest, emotionally and physically.

The next few months can be especially difficult to face if you’re not happy with yourself, your job, your relationships, finances, your family and many other factors. End-of-year blues are common even for those who appear emotionally happy and balanced – it’s when many people take stock, realize how quickly time is passing, and check into their personal “dashboard” of achievements, goals and tasks.

If we made resolutions back in January, we can’t avoid measuring what we have – or have not – accomplished. And for many people, the upcoming holidays serve as a reminder of lost or distant friends and family. If you’re alone, the holidays can be even more isolating as people celebrate around us and we feel invisible and detached.

Maybe we thought we’d already have been promoted by now, a significant relationship would have appeared or matured, some pounds lost, some light found. We may have disappointed someone or ourselves by things we did or did not do, find or accomplish.

These difficulties are exacerbated by the loss of light and return of cold weather. Colder days and reduced sunlight can trigger Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), a psychological state that literally changes our biology and can cause or add to depression.

Even if we don’t suffer from chemical or emotional depression, the final months of the year are challenging. Psychologists point out that there is a difference between the holiday blues, which are often temporary and go away once the season ends, and more serious conditions such as depression, SAD, and anxiety disorders. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), depression occurs when feelings of extreme sadness or despair last for at least two weeks or longer and when they interfere with activities of daily living such as working or even eating and sleeping. Depressed individuals tend to feel helpless, and hopeless about changing their situation.

If your sense of sadness or “the blues” seem to linger or become more intense, you may want to seek help from a mental health professional, such as a psychologist, who can help determine if you have depression and how best to treat it. The APA also cautions about the risks of turning to alcohol for comfort. Although it may seem to bring temporary relief, it is actually a central nervous system depressant and a diuretic. Alcohol use affects balance, increases the risk for falls, may not interact well with medications, and disrupts sleep, which has a number of health consequences.

Take Charge, and Keep Moving

There are a number of steps we can take to reduce stress and depression, and to lift our spirits. To start, it’s always beneficial to try and continue our normal routines to help feel like we’re still in control. We can consciously try to not over-eat and make time for exercise and rest.

Additionally, personal outreach, especially socializing and connecting with old friends and associates is important for our emotional health any time of year. Today’s electronic world often allows us instantaneous messaging and the ability to “reach out and touch” someone far away, but virtual communication through email and tools like Facebook and Twitter can’t replace the value of face-to-face interactions. We are social creatures, and while digital outreach is valuable and sometimes our easiest option, the Internet tends to act as a buffer between us and real intimacy.

Relationships and effective communication are built on eye contact, touch, feedback and unspoken physical communication. When possible, make the effort to visit friends and neighbors, attend parties and gatherings, contribute personal time through charitable efforts and catch up with people in person.

Here are some helpful hints for maintaining your balance as we get into the deepest recesses of the year:

  • Practice forgiveness, of yourself and for others. There’s still time and opportunity to adjust your goals, set new ones, or analyze what you might do differently going forward. Negativity wears on you and those you touch – so does a positive attitude!
  • Maintain your routine. Keep going to the gym, taking your walks, doing your special projects. The end of the year is nothing but a date on the calendar . . . life continues and, in fact, can get better as you set and work toward new, achievable goals.
  • Exercise regularly. Whether you walk, go to the gym, ride a bike, take yoga or spinning classes or just hit the treadmill in your basement, take time every day to exercise. It’s good for your heart, your respiratory system, your bones and joints and your mental health.
  • Eat a healthy diet. Low fat, low sugar, low salt should be our mantra. Eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, savor low-fat milk and yogurt, avoid fried foods and go easy on red meat and useless carbs from bread, cookies and cake, pasta, processed foods and snacks.
  • Don’t smoke. Tobacco products are bad for you and for others, period. They have a serious impact on your short- and long-term health, and cost a lot of money. There are many smoking-cessation programs available, and your physician can prescribe medications or aids to help with nicotine withdrawal.
  • Don’t consume too much alcohol. Drinking shortens your life, and can lead to strokes, heart disease and other illnesses. Alcohol also is a depressant and a diuretic, and inhibits restful sleep.
  • Get plenty of sleep. Adults should try to sleep eight hours, when possible, children even more. Pushing ourselves reduces our immunity to disease, makes us irritable, and makes accidents and mistakes more likely.
  • Talk to people . . . and to your physician. If you’re feeling down, worried, anxious or depressed, share your concerns with a friend or a medical professional. If depression is affecting your sleep, diet, work, school or behavior, ask your physician about medical or counseling interventions. Seeing a therapist (clinical psychologist, psychiatrist or professional counselor) for guidance and validation is healthy, smart and practical.

Taking care of ourselves is the gift that keeps on giving, any time of year. Make room for the people and activities that are most meaningful, and as the holidays rapidly approach, remember to breathe, set daily and weekly goals, and not be so hard on yourself or on others.


Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

When too much information can hurt you

If you’re like most modern healthcare consumers, you use the Internet to search for health, wellness or medical information. That can range from fairly benign searches for healthier foods, exercises and over-the-counter drug remedies, to more sophisticated inquiries on topics ranging from sleeping disorders or joint injuries to stomach distress and skin cancer. The good news is that there is a ton of information on the Web to help us navigate common concerns and keep us better informed. The bad news is that much of the information may not be accurate or reliable, and could lead us to make poorly informed decisions like not calling a physician when we should or, in a flip of that coin, calling all the time when it may not be necessary.

Everyone knows a hypochondriac.  If it’s harmless Aunt Agnes, who believes she has had every disease in the book, we wink, respond kindly and go back to our dessert. But for millions of Americans, the fear of disease and tendency to self-diagnose can be a serious issue. And easy access to legitimate – and often wrong or unsubstantiated medical information online – can seriously exacerbate or feed these concerns.

Hypochondriasis is the fear of a serious illness that continues despite the reassurance of physicians and testing. These fears and anxieties about illness may become debilitating and interfere with daily life. In the past people would go from friend to friend and from doctor to doctor seeking an answer. In today’s online world, however, many people never see a physician and rely solely upon electronically accessed information or what they may hear on television.

This interaction of excessive anxiety brought on by the use of online and broadcast health information is now being referred to, creatively, as “cyberchondria.” It is defined as an imagined illness with exaggeration of symptoms, no matter how insignificant, that lasts for at least six months and causes significant distress. It tends to develop in the 20s or 30s, and it affects men and women equally.

Most of us know when to see a physician or healthcare professional. The blinding headache that won’t go away, an obvious injury or severe irritation or a persistent virus or cough requires medical diagnosis and intervention. But, just for fun, go to your favorite search engine and look up “headache,” and you’ll be amazed (or not) at what you find:  An enormous online smorgasbord that could take months, or even years, to review. That information is punctuated by thousands of offers for remedies, as well, many of them from unscrupulous advertisers.

For many people, a headache may mean we’re tired, dehydrated, stressed or working too hard. If we have a family history of migraines, that could be a related cause.  But for the cyberchondriac, a headache may be seem as a brain tumor or aneurism, just as a pain somewhere else could be cancer or a chronic disease. The more research they do, the more their anxiety builds. When these misguided attempts at self-diagnosis escalate, pursuing these ailments results in medical tests or treatments costing billions of dollars annually.

What are quirks to some can be obsessive for others – but the suffering is real and can be emotionally paralyzing. Patients don’t have to actually have the disease to believe they are sick, or to exhibit certain related symptoms: Our brains are complex mechanisms that can turn against us in the forms of imaginary or misunderstood aches and pains and anxiety-related behaviors that appear very real to the afflicted. Hypochondriacs tend to be very aware of bodily sensations that most people live with and ignore. The stress that goes along with this worry can make the symptoms even worse, and the more time spent online “researching” – even when the information is accurate — further escalates the concern, and the symptoms.

Part of the problem, experts say, is that information on the Internet is not truly diagnostic or intuitive, compared to a face-to-face meeting with a healthcare professional. Information online tends to be very general, too complex, and easily misinterpreted. Physicians, on the other hand, bring years of diagnostic experience and insight. They have a wide variety of easily accessible testing available to the patient, translate the patient’s family, age, personal and emotional history, and can quickly eliminate or identify potential culprits and symptoms.

It is important to remember that search engines, unlike physicians, are not versed in diagnostic reasoning and do not discriminate between common benign disorders and less common serious problems. The information we can find online is often helpful for better understanding potential medical conditions and remedies, especially when the source is reliable.

Here are a few tips for avoiding or helping to control cyberchondria:

  • Stick with one physician, rather than changing doctors regularly
  • Avoid constant “self-checking” such as constantly monitoring your temperature, blood pressure and pulse
  • Be active, and exercise regularly, which are both good for reducing stress
  • Seek help from a professional therapist or psychologist
  • Join a support group to help you better understand your obsessions and related coping mechanisms.

Ultimately, the smart practice is to take anything we learn on the internet or on television with a grain of salt, realize the limitations to analyzing medical conditions through these media, and seek professional medical information and attention whenever we’re sick . . . or believe we may be sick.

# # #

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Opiate addiction: Alive and well and thriving

The statistics involving opiates and opioids in Connecticut are grim, and unless you’ve been paying attention, may be surprising: Our State has surpassed the national death rate for drug and opioid overdoses since 2013. From 2000 to 2014, nearly half a million persons in the United States died from drug overdoses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The number of prescriptions for some of these medications has increased dramatically since the early 1990s. A consumer culture willing to “take a pill for what ails us” — and the perception of prescription drugs as less harmful than illicit drugs — are other contributors to the problem.  As a result, unintentional overdose deaths involving opioid pain relievers have quadrupled since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine. There has been a rash of high-profile tragedies involving these drugs, including the recent death of singer/songwriter Prince from an overdose of fentanyl. But you don’t have to be rich or famous to access and abuse drugs.

According to several national surveys, prescription medications, such as those used to treat pain, attention deficit disorders and anxiety are being abused at a rate second only to marijuana among illicit drug users. The consequences of this abuse have been steadily worsening, reflected in increased treatment admissions, emergency room visits, and overdose deaths.

Why are opioids effective – and dangerous?

Opioids are synthetic drugs manufactured to work similarly to opiates like heroin or morphine. They include drugs like oxycodone, methadone, hydrocodone, hydromorphine, and fentanyl. In the past several years, the use of opiates, including heroin, has increased significantly in Connecticut, as have fatal doses. In 2015 alone, heroin played a role in 415 deaths in our state.

Opioids act by attaching to specific proteins called opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs in the body. When these drugs attach to their receptors, they reduce the perception of pain. Opioids can also produce drowsiness, mental confusion, nausea, constipation, and, depending upon the amount of drug taken, can depress respiration.

Some people experience a euphoric response to opioid medications, since these drugs also affect the brain regions involved in reward. Those who abuse opioids may seek to intensify their experience by taking the drug in ways other than those prescribed. For example, OxyContin is an oral medication used to treat moderate to severe pain through a slow, steady release of the opioid. People who abuse OxyContin may snort or inject it, increasing their risk for serious medical complications, including overdose.

Data shows that people who use opioids non-medically don’t typically get them from doctors or prescriptions. Rather, they come from a relative’s medicine cabinet or a friend, and more often than not, the addiction can stem from a legitimate use, such as a prescription for painkillers following dental work, surgery or to help manage chronic pain.

Although most people take prescription medications responsibly, an estimated 52 million people (20 percent of those aged 12 and older) have used prescription drugs for non-medical reasons at least once in their lifetimes. A National Institute on Drug Abuse survey found that about one in 12 high school seniors reported past-year nonmedical use of the prescription pain reliever Vicodin, and one in 20 reported abusing OxyContin — making these medications among the most commonly abused drugs by adolescents.

Tightening controls on prescription pain killers, however, drives some people abusing pills to switch to heroin, which is cheaper and far more available. In fact, according to CDC data, heroin use is rising again even as abuse of opioids is leveling off.  From 2014 to 2015, the number of times fentanyl was found in the bloodstream of overdose victims increased 150 percent, and last year it was responsible for one quarter of all drug overdoses. Law-enforcement officials report an increased availability of illicitly manufactured fentanyl, and drug dealers cut heroin with fentanyl to increase the potency of the product.  Drug overdose deaths involving heroin continue to climb sharply, with heroin overdoses more than doubling from 2012 to 2015.

Addressing the problem

Addiction, which can include physical dependence, is distinguished by compulsive drug seeking and use despite sometimes devastating consequences. Someone who is physically dependent on a medication will experience withdrawal symptoms when use of the drug is abruptly reduced or stopped. These symptoms can be mild or severe (depending on the drug) and can usually be managed medically or avoided by progressively reducing dosage and frequency.

Dependence is often accompanied by tolerance, or the need to take higher doses of a medication to get the same effect. When tolerance occurs, it can be difficult for a physician to evaluate whether a patient is developing a drug problem, or has a real medical need for higher doses to control their symptoms.

Taken as prescribed, opioids can be used to manage pain safely and effectively. However, when abused, even a single large dose can cause severe respiratory depression and death. Properly managed, short-term medical use of opioid analgesics rarely causes addiction.

Only under a physician’s supervision can opioids be used safely with other drugs. Typically, they should not be used with other substances that depress the central nervous system, such as alcohol, antihistamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, or general anesthetics, because these combinations increase the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression.

Always follow the prescribed directions, be aware of potential interactions with other drugs, never stop or change a dosing regimen without first discussing it with a healthcare provider, and never use another person’s prescription. Additionally, unused or expired medications should be properly discarded per U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines or at U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration collection sites.

For people experiencing dependency or addiction issues, there are medical solutions. Years of research have shown that addiction to any drug (illicit or prescribed) is a brain disease that can be treated effectively. Treatment takes into account the type of drug used and the needs of the individual. Successful treatment may need to incorporate several components, including detoxification, counseling, and sometimes the use of addiction medications. Multiple courses of treatment may be needed for patients to make a full recovery.

Rich or poor, black or white, living in the city or in the country, it doesn’t matter – the reach of illicit drug use touches all walks of life. If someone you know may be abusing pain killers, consider speaking with them and suggesting they talk with their physicians or other healthcare providers for guidance, and recognize the same issues in yourself if you’ve been using pain medications, even for legitimate purposes.

# # #

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Nod yes, not off, if you’re feeling sleepy

Some days, there’s more of the Sleepy Dwarf in us than we’d care to admit. Beyond the excuse of extremely active weekends and occasional late nights, we’ve gotten too used to feeling fatigued. We drag ourselves to work, school and activities with the promise that, next weekend – or when we take that last exam, get through this big project, or finish the season – we’ll get some much-needed sleep. But how much IS enough? Is five or six hours a night really cutting it for us?

The answer, for most human beings, is definitely “no.”  Everyone’s individual sleep needs vary. In general, most healthy adults require 16 hours of wakefulness and need an average of eight hours of sleep a night. However, some individuals are able to function without sleepiness or drowsiness after as little as six or seven hours of sleep. Others can’t perform at their peak unless they’ve slept 10 hours. And, contrary to common myth, the need for sleep doesn’t decline with age, although the ability to sleep for six to eight hours at one time may be reduced.

Sleep is essential for a person’s health and well-being, according to the National Sleep Foundation (NSF). Yet millions of people do not get enough sleep and suffer related consequences relating to performance, irritability, accidents and reduced productivity. Surveys conducted by the NSF revealed that at least 40 million Americans suffer from over 70 different sleep disorders, and 60 percent of adults report having sleep problems a few nights a week or more. Most of these problems go undiagnosed and untreated. In addition, more than 40 percent of adults experience daytime sleepiness severe enough to interfere with their daily activities at least a few days each month, with 20 percent reporting problem sleepiness a few days a week or more.

Psychologists and other scientists who study the causes of sleep disorders have determined problems directly or indirectly tied to abnormalities in the brain and nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, and with metabolic functions. Furthermore, unhealthy conditions, disorders and diseases can also cause sleep problems, including:

  • Pathological sleepiness, insomnia and accidents
  • Hypertension and elevated cardiovascular risks (including stroke)
  • Emotional disorders (depression, bipolar disorder)
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic syndrome and diabetes
  • Alcohol and drug abuse

Though common, not everyone who is tired has a sleep disorder. There is a lot we can do to get a better night’s sleep, feel refreshed when we awake, and remain alert throughout the day. It’s called “sleep hygiene” and refers to those practices, habits, and environmental factors that are critically important for sound sleep.

We all have a day/night cycle of about 24 hours called the circadian rhythm. It greatly influences when we sleep and the quantity and the quality of our sleep. The more stable and consistent our circadian rhythm, the better our sleep. This cycle may be altered by the timing of various factors, including naps, bedtime, exercise, and especially exposure to light (from traveling across time zones to staring at television or a laptop in bed at night).

Aging also plays a role in sleep and sleep hygiene. After the age of 40 our sleep patterns change, and we have many more nocturnal awakenings than in our younger years. This not only directly affects the quality of our sleep, but also interacts with any other condition that may cause arousals or awakenings, like the withdrawal syndrome that occurs after drinking alcohol close to bedtime. Additionally, psychological stressors like deadlines, exams, marital conflict, and job crises may prevent us from falling asleep or wake us from sleep throughout the night.

Here are 10 sleep hygiene tips to help us relax, fall asleep, stay asleep, and get better sleep so we wake up refreshed and alert:

  1. Avoid watching TV, eating, and discussing emotional issues in bed. The bed should be used for sleep and sex only. When we associate the bed with other activities it often becomes difficult to fall asleep.
  2. Minimize noise, light, and temperature extremes during sleep with ear plugs, window blinds, or an electric blanket or air conditioner. Even the slightest nighttime noises or luminescent lights can disrupt the quality of our sleep. Try to keep the bedroom at a comfortable temperature — not too hot (above 75 degrees) or too cold (below 54 degrees).
  3. Try not to drink fluids after 8 p.m. This may reduce awakenings due to urination.
  4. Avoid naps if possible, but if you do nap, make it no more than about 25 minutes about eight hours after you awake.
  5. Do not expose yourself to bright light if you need to get up at night. Use a small night-light instead.
  6. Nicotine is a stimulant and should be avoided, particularly near bedtime and upon night awakenings. Smoking tobacco products before bed, although it may feel relaxing, is actually putting a stimulant into our bloodstream.
  7. Caffeine is also a stimulant and is present in coffee (100-200 mg), soda (50-75 mg), tea (50-75 mg), and various over-the-counter medications. Caffeine should be discontinued at least four to six hours before bedtime. But note that if we consume large amounts of caffeine and cut ourselves off too quickly, we may get headaches that could keep us awake.
  8. Although alcohol is a depressant and may help us fall asleep, the metabolic machinery that clears it from our body when we are sleeping causes a withdrawal syndrome. This withdrawal causes awakenings and is often associated with nightmares and sweats.
  9. A light snack may seem sleep-inducing, but a heavy meal too close to bedtime interferes with sleep. Stay away from protein and stick to carbohydrates or dairy products. Milk contains the amino acid L-tryptophan, which has been shown in research to help people go to sleep. So milk and cookies or crackers (without chocolate) may be useful and taste good as well.
  10. Do not exercise vigorously just before bed, especially if you are the type of person who is aroused by exercise. If possible, it’s best to exercise in the morning or afternoon (preferably an aerobic workout, like running or walking).

We know when we’re tired, but doing something about the negative effects of fatigue and sleeplessness requires focus, discipline and often, professional assistance. Seek help if you can’t seem to get the sleep you need.  And if you’re just afraid of missing something, wake up. If you don’t want to morph from chronically Sleepy to permanently Grumpy, get some rest!

# # #

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

About Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Let’s face it, most of us push ourselves too hard and burn the candle at both ends — as well as in the middle. We work a ton, chase the kids and animals, and prowl the grocery store at night. We run around days and weekends, go out for adult play, stay up late, and simply don’t get enough sleep.

Of course we’re tired. Even if we try to eat healthfully, exercise regularly and get better-than-average sleep, fatigue may set in. It could be stress related, a nutritional deficiency, or poor sleep hygiene ranging from sleep apnea to bad late-night eating habits. Sleep supplements and more rest may help; but what happens when nothing appears to be working and the fatigue gets so bad that it interferes with your job, your family or school time, and causes you to make mistakes, or worse, endanger yourself or others?

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), sometimes called myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a condition that makes you feel so tired that you can’t do all of your normal, daily activities. There are other symptoms too, but being very tired is the main one. Some people have severe fatigue and other symptoms for many years.

Your being tired isn’t just in your head . . . it may be your body’s reaction to a variety of factors. CFS is not well understood — most experts now believe that it is a separate illness with its own set of symptoms.

Most CFS patients have some form of sleep dysfunction. Common sleep complaints include difficulty falling asleep, hypersomnia (extreme sleepiness), frequent awakening, intense and vivid dreaming, restless legs, and nocturnal myoclonus (night-time muscular spasm). Most CFS patients report that they feel less refreshed and restored after sleep than they felt before they became ill.

Doctors don’t know what causes CFS. Sometimes it begins after a viral infection, but there is no proof of any connection. It’s likely that a number of factors or triggers come together to cause CFS, but since there are no tests for CFS, it is difficult to determine. Because of this, many people have trouble accepting their disease or getting their friends and family to do so.

Extreme tiredness, or fatigue, is the main symptom. If you have CFS:

  • You may feel exhausted all or much of the time.
  • You may have problems sleeping. Or you may wake up feeling tired or not rested.
  • It may be harder for you to think clearly, to concentrate, and to remember things.
  • You may also have headaches, muscle and joint pain, a sore throat, and tender glands in your neck or armpits.
  • Your symptoms may flare up after a mental or physical activity that used to be no problem for you. You may feel drained or exhausted.

Depression is common with CFS, and it can make your other symptoms worse. Since there are not tests for CFS, doctors can diagnose it only by ruling out other possible causes of your fatigue. And since so many other health problems can cause fatigue, most people with fatigue have something other than chronic fatigue syndrome.

Doctors can help people with CFS adopt good sleep habits. Patients are advised to practice standard sleep hygiene techniques, such as:

  • Establish a regular bedtime routine
  • Avoid napping during the day
  • Incorporate an extended wind-down period
  • Use the bed only for sleep and sex
  • Schedule regular sleep and wake times
  • Control noise, light, and temperature
  • Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco
  • Try light exercise and stretching earlier in the day, at least four hours before bedtime, because this may also improve sleep.

While there is no treatment for CFS itself, many of its symptoms can be treated. A good relationship with your doctor is important. That’s because the two of you have to work together to find a combination of medicines and behavior changes that will help you get better. Some trial and error may be needed, because no single combination of treatments works for everyone. If you believe you may have CFS, speak with your physician as soon as possible, and consider meeting with a behavioral health counselor as well.

# # #

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Saying “Thanks” is Healthy for Giver and Receiver

Think about your own life, work, and accomplishments. It feels good when we do a good job. But while that satisfaction itself can be very rewarding, acknowledgement from our bosses, peers, family members, and friends is equally important. Telling someone he or she has done a good job isn’t just the right thing to do, but also is a mechanism for improving emotional and physical health, productivity, teamwork, and service.

When someone feels taken for granted, unrecognized or under-appreciated, it has a direct impact on their emotional health and stress levels. Lack of recognition, especially in the workplace, often is mentioned as a contributing factor to overall employee dissatisfaction. And the more unhappy employees are at work, the more productivity, teamwork and customer relations may suffer.  Quality suffers, as well, and increased stress is a known factor in promoting irritability, increasing conflict, interfering with sleep and diet, boosting absenteeism and increasing “presenteeism,” a loss of workplace productivity resulting from employee health problems and/or personal issues. It also contributes to increases in blood pressure, heart disease, poor nutrition and weight gain.

Americans like being told “thanks” but aren’t that great at thanking others, according to a national survey on gratitude commissioned in 2012 by the John Templeton Foundation. The polling firm Penn Shoen Berland surveyed over 2,000 people in the United States, capturing perspectives from different ages, ethnic groups, income levels, religions and more.

Gratitude was enormously important to respondents, who also admitted they think about, feel, and espouse gratitude more readily than expressing it to others. This might be why respondents also felt that gratitude in America is declining.

  • More than 90 percent of those polled agreed that grateful people are more fulfilled, lead richer lives, and are more likely to have friends.
  • More than 95 percent said that it is anywhere from “somewhat” to “very” important for mothers and fathers to teach gratitude.
  • People are less likely to express gratitude at work than anyplace else. Seventy-four percent never or rarely express gratitude to their boss. But people are eager to have a boss who expresses gratitude to them. Seventy percent would feel better about themselves if their boss was more grateful, and 81 percent would work harder.
  • 93 percent of those polled agreed that grateful bosses were more likely to be successful, and only 18 percent thought that grateful bosses would be seen as “weak.”

The bottom line is that we’re better at noticing and tallying what we personally do than what other people do.  According to the data, most of the people surveyed appreciate being appreciated, but lack in their tendency to say “thanks”– despite knowing that expressing gratitude can bring more happiness, meaning, professional success, and interpersonal connection into their lives.

Ultimately, there are so many ways to say “thanks” to our employees. Whether verbally, through written or public commendation, one-on-one, or in front of peers at staff meetings, gratitude is an important employee relations, productivity and stress-reduction tool. And while bonuses, pay raises, gift cards, and compensatory time off are terrific recognition tools, employees want to feel like it is more than simply “doing their jobs and meeting expectations” that matters.

# # #

If you’re not enjoying the benefits of a wellness program at your company, join CBIA Healthy Connections at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

 

 

Fighting the Winter Blahs

Seasonal blahs generally means less interaction with others or isolation – and neither are good for our health. Several research studies have shown a strong correlation between social interaction and health and well-being among adults, and have suggested that social isolation may have significant adverse effects, especially for older adults. For example, study results indicate that:

  • Social relationships are consistently associated with biomarkers of health. Positive indicators of social well-being may be associated with lower levels of interleukin-6 in otherwise healthy people. Interleukin-6 is an inflammatory factor implicated in age-related disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer.
  • Caring for children and grandchildren makes us healthier and more active. We experience a strong emotional bond that often leads to a more active lifestyle, healthier meals and more activities. If someone doesn’t have anyone to care for, though, it’s important to visit with friends or seek out opportunities to interact with others as often as possible.
  • Social isolation constitutes a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality, especially in older adults.
  • Loneliness may have a physical as well as an emotional impact. For example, people who are lonely frequently have elevated systolic blood pressure.
  • Loneliness is a unique risk factor for symptoms of depression, and loneliness and depression have a synergistic adverse effect on well-being, especially in middle-aged and older adults.

Regardless of the season, it’s always beneficial to try and continue our normal routines to help feel like we’re still in control. We can consciously try to not over-eat and make time for exercise and rest. Additionally, personal outreach, especially socializing and connecting with old friends and associates, is important for our emotional health. Today’s electronic world often allows us instantaneous messaging and the ability to connect with friends and family far away, but virtual communication through email and tools like Facebook and Twitter can’t replace the value of face-to-face interactions. While digital outreach is valuable and sometimes our easiest option, the Internet tends to act as a buffer between us and real intimacy.

Relationships and effective communication are built on eye contact, touch, feedback and unspoken physical communication. When possible, make the effort to visit friends and neighbors, attend parties and gatherings, contribute personal time through charitable efforts and catch up with people in person. Pursuing hobbies and activities that get us out of the house and moving are important, too. Yoga, art classes, dance, exercise, reading groups, quilting circles, bowling and even scrapbooking can get us out of the house and keep us more active.

Here are a few other tips to help keep us healthier during the remaining cooler months:

  • Get outside. Even if it is gray and cloudy, the effects of daylight are beneficial. In addition to more exposure to daylight, fresh air is stimulating, and walking outdoors revitalizes us.
  • Balanced nutrition. A well-balanced, nutritious diet will provide more energy and help quell carb cravings. Comfort food tastes good and it may make us feel better for the short-term, but a balanced diet of vegetables, fruits, lean proteins and whole grains will help keep our weight in check and make us feel better in the long run.
  • Take vitamins or supplements. Getting our recommended daily amounts of vitamins and minerals can help improve our energy, particularly if we are deficient in key nutrients. There are a variety of seasonal supplements available, but check with a physician or naturopath before taking mega-doses or herbal formulations. A multi-vitamin and mineral supplement may be all we need.
  • Move our body. Regardless of the time of year, regular exercise is essential for overall health. Even if the weather has us mostly relegated to the indoors, we can still head to our local gym or exercise in the comfort of our home. Getting our body moving will help battle winter weight gain, boost endorphins, and may even help us sleep more soundly. If dressed for the weather, walks and hikes outdoors are invigorating and good for us physically and mentally. And yoga, meditation and classes that promote group stretching and exercise are good for us physically and socially.
  • Prioritize social activities. Stay connected to a social network. Getting out of the house and doing enjoyable things with friends and family can do wonders for cheering us up. Go to a movie or make a dinner date. Plan regular social activities and, weather permitting, get outdoors for a group hike, skiing or other activity.
  • Consider getting help. If stress and depression are still interfering with your daily functioning, seek professional help. Antidepressants and certain types of psychotherapy have proven effective in helping people cope with seasonal mood changes.

The important thing is to keep moving, interact with others and to take control of our bodies and minds so the “winter blues” don’t take control of us!

# # #

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Giving is receiving

There’s no question that when we give to others – whether it’s our time, charitable donations, or gifts – we feel good. Sometimes it’s anticipation and joy as we watch someone open his or her gift, or it can be pride or the sense of self-satisfaction we experience when supporting a charity, organization or cause we believe is important. Whatever our reason for giving to others, it feels good – and it’s good for us!

Beyond anecdotal evidence and the hard to measure “warm fuzzy feelings” we derive from acts of kindness and sharing, medical research indicates that giving is good for the giver’s physical and mental health. Giving reduces stress, which can lower blood pressure. Other health benefits associated with giving include increased self-esteem, reduced depression, and increased happiness – all gifts that can result in a longer, healthier life.

According to a 2006 study published in the International Journal of Psychophysiology, people who gave social support to others had lower blood pressure than people who didn’t. Supportive interaction with others also helped people recover from coronary-related events. The same study also found that people who gave their time to help others through community and organizational involvement had greater self-esteem, less depression and lower stress levels than those who didn’t.

In another 2006 study, researchers from the National Institutes of Health studied the functional MRIs of subjects who gave to various charities. They found that giving stimulates the mesolimbic pathway, which is the reward center in the brain, releasing endorphins and creating what is known as the “helper’s high.” That reaction, like other “feel-good” chemical catalysts, also is addictive – but it’s an addiction that’s good for us!

Overall, studies prove that giving affects us biologically, activating regions in the brain associated with pleasure, connection with other people and trust. According to a 1999 University of California, Berkeley, study, people who were 55 and older who volunteered for two or more organizations were 44 percent less likely to die over a five-year period than those who didn’t volunteer – even accounting for many other factors including age, exercise, general health and negative habits like smoking. And in a 2003 University of Michigan study, a researcher found similar numbers in studying elderly people who gave help to friends, relatives and neighbors – or who gave emotional support to their spouses – versus those who didn’t.

Whether we’re on the giving or receiving end of a gift, that gift can elicit feelings of gratitude – and research has found that gratitude is integral to happiness, health, and social bonds. And if that isn’t enough to further motivate us, when we give, we’re more likely to get back: Studies suggest that when we give to others, our generosity is likely to be rewarded by others down the line – sometimes by the person we gave to, sometimes by someone else. Additionally, the organizations we support help others, who then “pay it forward.”  These exchanges promote a sense of trust and cooperation that strengthen our ties, and research has shown that having positive social interactions also is central to good mental and physical health.

So when it comes to giving, there’s no apparent “down side.” Give often and give generously – whether time, a helping hand or charitable donations – and reap the many interpersonal and health rewards that come from “doing good” and from sharing.

# # #

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!