Pre-diabetes is Predictable, Prevalent, and Preventable

One of the nice things about being an adult is we can eat our dessert before our meal. But even if we give ourselves permission to indulge, we should tune in to the potential damage those desserts or anything we eat loaded with sugar is causing to our long-term health. With the holidays rapidly approaching, we also face the opportunity to heap an abundance of alcohol-based drinks, sweet punches, soda and a multitude of cookies, cakes and treats to our already struggling metabolic systems. But the long-term cost is not worth the short-term pleasure.

We all know someone with diabetes or “sugar issues,” but the real numbers that accompany this malady are staggering:  In addition to the 30 million Americans suffering from either type-1 (insulin dependent) or type-2 diabetes (which can often be controlled by drugs, exercise and careful diet), 86 million American adults – more than one out of three people – have prediabetes. What’s more, 90 percent of them don’t know they’re at risk.

November is National Diabetes Awareness Month. Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how our body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to our health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up our muscles and tissues. It’s also our brain’s main source of fuel.

Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach. Called the pancreas, it secretes insulin into the bloodstream, which circulates, enabling sugar to enter our cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in our bloodstream — as our blood-sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from our pancreas.

If we have diabetes, no matter what type, it means we have too much glucose in our blood, although the causes may differ. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. In type 2 diabetes, our cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and our pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of moving into our cells where it’s needed for energy, sugar builds up in our bloodstream.

Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it’s believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.

Don’t let the “pre” in prediabetes fool you

Prediabetes is a serious health condition where blood-sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as diabetes. Prediabetes puts you at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Diabetes affects every major organ in the body. People with diabetes often develop major complications such as kidney failure, blindness, and nerve damage (nerve damage can lead to amputation of a toe, foot, or leg). Some studies suggest that diabetes doubles the risk of depression, and that risk increases as more diabetes-related health problems develop. All can sharply reduce quality of life.

Though people with prediabetes are already at a higher risk of heart disease and stroke, they don’t yet have to manage the serious health problems that come with diabetes, which includes daily insulin injections and carefully regulated nutrition. Between 90 percent and 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2; only about 5 percent have type 1, which is caused by an immune reaction that is not preventable. Type 2, however, can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle changes.

You can have prediabetes for years but have no clear symptoms, so it often goes undetected until serious health problems show up. That’s why it’s important to talk to your doctor about getting your blood sugar tested if you have any of the risk factors for prediabetes, which include:

  • Being overweight
  • Being 45 years or older
  • Having a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes
  • Being physically active less than three times a week
  • Ever having gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or giving birth to a baby that weighed more than nine pounds

Race and ethnicity are also a factor: African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians, Pacific Islanders, and some Asian Americans are at higher risk.

Nutritional tips for a healthier holiday season

Here are some useful tips to help manage our sweet tooth when dessert and other foods high in calories, sugar, fat and salt are served:

  • Decide ahead of time what and how much you will eat and how you will handle social pressure.
  • Eat a healthy snack early to avoid overeating at the party.
  • Bring a nutritious snack or your own healthy dessert such asplain cookies, baked apples, or sugar-free puddings.
  • Look for side dishes and vegetables that are light on butter and dressing, and other extra fats and sugars such as marshmallows or fried vegetable toppings.
  • If there is someone else at the party who is trying to watch what they eat, buddy up! Avoid tempting sweets and ask your fellow conscious eater to join you for a walk while dessert is out on the table.
  • Choose low-calorie drinks such as sparkling water, unsweetened tea or diet beverages. If you choose to drink alcohol, limit the amount, and have it with food.

Additionally, there are ways to revise dessert recipes so they are healthier and still tasty. Often, we can replace up to half of the sugar in a recipe with a sugar substitute. We can also try cutting down on sugar and increasing the use of cinnamon, nutmeg, vanilla, and other sweet-tasting spices and flavorings.

We can often blame type 1 diabetes on genetics, but type 2 isn’t as easy to pass off – we don’t have to give up all of our holiday favorites if we make healthy choices and limit portion sizes. How we eat, what we eat and our willingness to exercise and control our weight are the key factors to remaining healthy and avoiding the trauma of type 2 diabetes and its nefarious side effects.


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

The Importance of Dental Hygiene

It’s said the eyes are windows to our souls. That would make our mouths gateways to something, though what that might be is up for debate depending on how well you practice good dental hygiene. While oral health is important to our appearance and well-being, it plays an equally important role in limiting damage from or aggravating serious conditions such as diabetes and respiratory health. Untreated cavities can be painful and lead to serious infections, and poor oral health has been linked to sleeping problems, as well as behavioral and developmental problems in children. It can also affect our ability to chew and digest food properly.

Gum disease is an inflammation of the gums, which may also affect the bone supporting the teeth. Plaque is a sticky, colorless film of bacteria that constantly builds up, thickens and hardens on the teeth. If it is not removed by daily brushing and flossing, this plaque can harden into tartar and may contribute to infections in the gums. Left untreated, gum disease can lead to the loss of teeth and an increased risk of more serious illnesses.

Additionally, the bacteria in plaque can travel from the mouth to the lungs, causing infection or exacerbating existing lung conditions. It creates risks for heart patients, too, as it can travel through the bloodstream and get lodged in narrow arteries, contributing to heart attacks. Also, people with diabetes are more susceptible to gum disease and it can put them at greater risk of diabetic complications.

Regular brushing and checkups are critically important, as is flossing, which does about 40 percent of the work required to remove plaque from the hard-to-reach spaces between our teeth.

Most floss is made of either nylon or Teflon, and both are equally effective. People with larger spaces between their teeth or with gum recession (loss of gum tissue, which exposes the roots of the teeth) tend to get better results with a flat, wide dental tape. If teeth are close together, try thin floss that bills itself as “shred resistant.” Bridges and braces require more effort to get underneath the restorations or wires and between the teeth. Use a floss threader, which looks like a plastic sewing needle. Or look for a product called Super Floss that has one stiff end to fish the floss through the teeth, followed by a spongy segment and regular floss for cleaning.

What’s in your toothpaste?

The first known toothpaste recipe dates to the fourth century AD. This recipe was written in Greek on a scrap of papyrus. The Egyptian scribe explained that the recipe created a “powder for white and perfect teeth.”

Egyptians would have mixed the paste with a bit of their own saliva and then used their fingers to scour their teeth. The recipe aligned with traditional home medicinal practices that are still in use around the world. Classical herbals list Iris as good for toothache and for sweetening the breath.  Pepper would have stimulated the gums, mint would have added the fresh taste we still love in modern toothpaste, and rock salt would have been a purifying abrasive.

Egyptians had many recipes for tooth powders. Favored ingredients included the powdered ashes of oxen hooves, crushed myrrh, burned egg shells, and powered pumice stone. The Persians liked using burnt shells of snails and oysters. In China a mix of ginseng, various mints, and salt was the preferred recipe. Many Europeans modeled themselves after the ancient Greeks, cleaning their teeth with a rough cloth (usually linen) or a sponge that they’d dipped into a paste made of ashes, sulfur oil and salt, until well into the sixteenth century.

In 1873, Colgate released the first mass-produced toothpaste. It was called Crème Dentifrice, and was sold in a jar. By 1896, the name had changed to Colgate Dental Cream and it was packaged in collapsible tubes. Fluoride was introduced in 1914 and was quickly added to most of toothpastes on the market.

Toothpaste, also called dentifrice, can be marketed as a paste, gel or powder. Today, toothpaste ingredients typically consist of mild abrasives to remove debris and residual surface stains; fluoride to strengthen tooth enamel and re-mineralize enamel in the early stages of tooth decay; humectants to prevent water loss in the toothpaste; flavoring agents, such as saccharin and other sweeteners to improve taste; thickening agents or binders to stabilize the toothpaste formula; and detergents to create foaming action.

Toothpastes may contain several active ingredients to help improve oral health.  Fluoride actively helps prevent tooth decay by strengthening tooth enamel. All toothpastes with the ADA Seal of Acceptance contain fluoride. In addition to fluoride, toothpastes may contain active ingredients to help improve tooth sensitivity, whiten teeth, or reduce gingivitis or tartar build-up. No ADA-accepted toothpaste contains sugar or any other ingredient that would promote tooth decay.

Ultimately, one of the best ways to control plaque is brushing your teeth thoroughly at least twice a day. But you don’t need toothpaste to do this, just a soft toothbrush and good brushing techniques will remove plaque. Flossing, limiting sugary food and drinks, regular checkups and professional cleanings should keep your teeth in top shape. And by the way:  Whatever type of toothpaste you choose to use, don’t mimic commercials and smear your brush with a huge stripe of paste – a pea-sized drop is sufficient.


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Are Cell Phones Cooking Our Brains?

Quick, of all the electronic, radiation-producing devices invented in the past century, which one do we most keep pressed against or near our brain, ears, eyes and body for countless hours of each day, seven days a week, all year long? If you’re a cynic, you probably thought of hearing aids, right? But the answer is cell phones, smarty pants.

It would take volumes and years to examine and debate the profound effects cell phone technology have had on our culture, even well beyond the impact on human communication. Almost everyone you know has a cell phone, and most people today are using so-called “smart” phones, with Wi-Fi access to the Internet and thousands of useful and entertaining applications. But while we love our phones and the benefits we derive, it’s prudent to consider how safe they are, and how they might be affecting our health.

The good news is that countless studies around the world have failed to demonstrate a clear link between the radio waves used by cell phones and cancer in humans, especially with today’s more modern cell phone technology. The less-good news is that excessive cell phone use has caused other physical and emotional tolls, and that research into long-term health consequences from cell phone use is still in its infancy.

What we do know about cell phones and health

Electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range are used for telecommunications applications, including cell phones, televisions, and radio transmissions. The human body absorbs energy from devices that emit radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

There are many different types of radiation. Generally, they’re split into two categories: ionizing and non-ionizing. The first category includes x-rays, some high-energy UV rays, and cosmic rays. Cell phones give off radio waves, which are in the non-ionizing group. While ionizing radiation has been linked to cancer, non-ionizing radiation has not.

Over time, the number of cell phone calls per day, the length of each call, and the amount of time people use cell phones have increased. However, improvements in cell phone technology have resulted in devices that have lower power outputs than earlier models.

The only consistently recognized biological effect of radiofrequency energy is heating. The ability of microwave ovens to heat food is one example of this effect of radiofrequency energy. Radiofrequency exposure from cell phone use does cause heating to the area of the body where a cell phone or other device is held (ear, head, body, etc.). However, it is not sufficient to measurably increase body temperature, and there are no other clearly established effects on the body from radiofrequency energy.

When mobile phones are used very close to some medical devices (including pacemakers, implantable defibrillators, and certain hearing aids) there is the possibility of causing interference with their operation. The risk is much reduced for newer equipment. There is also the potential of interference between mobile phone signals and aircraft electronics. Some countries have licensed mobile phone use on aircraft during flight using systems that control the phone output power, but most airlines restrict cell phone and laptop use during takeoffs and landings.

Negative health consequences from cell phones

While the jury’s still out on non-ionizing radiation, heat and cell phones, what we DO know is that constant cell phone use typically requires bending one’s neck down to look at a small screen. This posture isn’t new – we look down when we write or read books, magazines and printed materials, as well – but texting adds another element that causes us to spend far more time than ever before bending our necks to look down, and spending way more time doing it.

Both of these elements are affecting posture and causing neck pain. This is especially troublesome when involving children because, over time, this constant bad posture can damage their cervical spine and result in neck injuries and chronic pain later in life.

Another less-often-mentioned consequence of cell phone use is bacterial exposure and infections. In studies, cell phones were shown to be germ magnets, especially for fecal bacteria, typically as a result of people going to the bathroom and not properly washing their hands. Cell phones with cases were the worst offenders for capturing and retaining germs, including viruses. Careful and regular cleaning of phones and phone cases with alcohol will help mitigate the potential for getting sick.

Interference with sleep is another consequence of constant cell phone use. Of course, it isn’t just cell phones – it’s the light emitted from “blue screens” such as television and computers, as well. Blue light shuts down melatonin production; melatonin is our body’s natural hormone which helps us fall asleep. Avoiding all types of blue-light emitters at least a full hour, and preferably, two or three hours before bedtime will result in improved sleep.

Studies also are underway regarding cell phones and repetitive use injuries to wrists and thumbs. While there haven’t been many conclusive results published, researchers have found that tablet and laptop users are at greater risk of developing musculoskeletal problems due to unnatural wrist postures.

And finally, the phenomena scientists are calling “digital distraction” is alive and, unfortunately, unwell. This is a wide range of distracted behaviors that result in vehicle, work and pedestrian accidents from people texting or phoning while they are driving, working or recreating.  Add GPS and music, and it’s a fine recipe for vehicular disaster. Countless examples of distracted driving have now been documented, resulting in thousands of deaths and many more injuries.

Here are a few “common-sense” tips for reducing potential injuries from cell phone use or exposure:

  • Use a hands-free device as often as possible. This does not include an “all-in-one” device like Bluetooth, which also emits radio frequencies, but a wireless or attached hands-free device. Use of these simple and inexpensive tools allows you to look ahead, not down, and moves the source of radiation away from your brain.
  • Keep the phone away from your head. Keep the phone in a handbag, holster or backpack, if possible, rather than holding it in your hands or keeping it pressed against your body in a pocket.
  • Avoid using your phone when you have bad reception. The fewer bars there are, the more powerfully the phone has to broadcast – some phones may increase output tenfold or more in areas with poor service.
  • Don’t text while your drive, walk or work. It seems obvious, but the alarming number of traffic, work and pedestrian accidents related to distracted phone users has mushroomed.
  • Place your phone or device on a counter or desk when possible. Phone and tablet users should attempt to place their devices in cases or on a stand that would allow for tilting the screen rather than holding and tilting the device in their hands. And whenever possible, place your cellphone in a mounting device in your car above the dashboard where it’s accessible without completely looking away from the road.

It’s not likely that we’re going to stop using cell phones. What is likely is that the technology will continue evolving, giving us access to faster, “smarter” and smaller phones and related communication devices. But as in other forms of modern technology, the practical uses and convenience evolves faster than researchers’ ability to assess long-term dangers and potential health consequences. The prescription for smart health, in all things, remains the use of common sense, and practicing cell phone use in moderation whenever possible.


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Seeing Clearly Is Good for Your Whole Body

Remember those stories we heard as children about eating carrots to keep our eyes strong? While it’s true that the beta carotene found in carrots converts to vitamin A during digestion and is rich in antioxidants, the best way to keep our eyes strong is to eat a balanced diet, get plenty of sleep, wear eye protection when appropriate, and make sure to schedule regular eye exams for yourself and your family members.

Millions of Americans wear corrective eye wear or contact lenses, but taking our eyes for granted is common and easy to do. Wearing approved safety glasses on a job site, while working in the yard, or when competing in sports seems obvious enough. But there are so many ways to hit ourselves in the eye or to be injured by thrown objects, splashed liquids, and even wind-blown contaminants or materials. Hospital emergency rooms treat patients with eyes damaged by all manner of chemicals, fish hooks, baseballs, wood chips, and much more. So if you’re doing something that might result in an injury, take the safe and easy step to cover your eyes.

Being aware of the potential damage from ultraviolet light also is important. Sunglasses and clear eyeglasses with protective coatings filter out the sun’s damaging rays, so if you work or spend a lot of time outdoors, you need that extra protection.

Visit your eye care professional regularly

Adults should visit an ophthalmologist at least once every other year, and annually if you have bad eyesight or a family history of glaucoma, cataracts, or other congenital or age-related eye ailments. Many eye maladies develop as we get older, part of the natural aging process. Through a comprehensive eye exam that typically involves dilating your pupils and conducting a number of standard (and painless) tests, eye care professionals (ophthalmologist and optometrists) not only determine sight deficiencies and illnesses, but also find warning signs pointing to other dangers such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer. Opticians can prescribe glasses and contacts, but aren’t as highly trained to spot illness and to deal with injuries.

Dry eye syndrome and glaucoma are two common ailments that affect people as they age. If the glands in your eyes stop making enough natural lubricants, you can buy over-the-counter remedies, but you should have your eyes checked for inflammation or infection. Sometimes dry eyes occur from living or working in windy, dry, or low-humidity environments, or in buildings with air-blown hot air. Doctors recommend “fake tears,” which don’t have as many chemicals as the “get the red out” eye drops. Anti-inflammation medications and vitamins or foods like fish oil which are high in Omega-3 are often recommended.

Glaucoma is a group of illnesses that can lead to blindness if not treated. When fluid builds up inside the eye, pressure and tension can result in damage to the optic nerve, including blindness. Glaucoma has no early warning signs. However, symptoms can include blurriness or clouded vision, sensitivity to light, headaches, reduced peripheral, or “tunnel vision”. It’s more common in adults over 60, in African American adults over 40, or in adults with diabetes, or a family history of glaucoma. It is most often treated through medications and surgery.

Here are some common tips for helping to ensure good eye health:

  • Know your family’s eye health history. Talk to your family members about their eye health history. It’s important to know if anyone has been diagnosed with a disease or condition since many are hereditary. This will help to determine if you are at higher risk for developing an eye disease or condition.
  • Eat right to protect your sight. Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, particularly dark leafy greens such as spinach, kale, or collard greens is important for keeping your eyes healthy. Research has also shown there are eye health benefits from eating fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight or obese increases your risk of developing systemic conditions such as diabetic eye disease or glaucoma which can lead to vision loss. If you are having trouble maintaining a healthy weight, talk to your doctor.
  • Wear protective eyewear. Wear protective eyewear when playing sports or doing activities around the home. Protective eyewear includes safety glasses and goggles, safety shields, and eye guards specially designed to provide the correct protection for a certain activity. Most protective eyewear lenses are made of polycarbonate, which is 10 times stronger than other plastics. Many eye care providers sell protective eyewear, as do some sporting goods stores.
  • Quit smoking or never start. Smoking is as bad for your eyes as it is for the rest of your body. Research has linked smoking to an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, and optic nerve damage, all of which can lead to blindness.
  • Be cool and wear your shades. Sunglasses are a great fashion accessory, but their most important job is to protect your eyes from the sun’s ultraviolet rays. When purchasing sunglasses, look for ones that block out 99 to 100%of both UV-A and UV-B radiation.
  • Give your eyes a rest. If you spend a lot of time at the computer or focusing on any one thing, you sometimes forget to blink and your eyes can get fatigued. Try the 20-20-20 rule: Every 20 minutes, look away about 20 feet in front of you for 20 seconds. This can help reduce eyestrain.
  • Clean your hands and your contact lenses properly. To avoid the risk of infection, always wash your hands thoroughly before putting in or taking out your contact lenses. Make sure to disinfect contact lenses as instructed and replace them as appropriate.

Through comprehensive, regular eye exams, your doctor can check for early warning signs of glaucoma, potential retinal detachment (which causes floaters or flashes in the eye but can be sight threatening) and other common eye diseases, and help keep those beautiful peepers of yours sparkling and healthy.


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

What’s That on Your Feet?!

It’s summer and many of us are fairly active outside or indoors; walking, jumping, biking, boating, playing sports, jogging, and exercising. Chances are we’re wearing sneakers or athletic shoes while we play or work, those leather, cloth, or mesh multi-colored foot coverings universally popular with children and adults alike. In the United States alone, the market for sneakers and athletic shoes comprises a multibillion-dollar industry that capitalizes on smart marketing, style, star power, peer pressure, practicality, and comfort.  We all wear them, yet how much do we actually know about what’s on our feet, like if they’re suitable for the activities we’re using them for and if they’re good for us?

At one time in the not-too-distant past, everyone wore sneakers when active. Now there are hundreds of athletic shoes to choose from, designed for practically every type of activity, though typically for running, training, and walking.

Court sports include shoes for tennis, basketball, and volleyball. Court sports require the body to move forwards, backwards, and side-to-side. As a result, most athletic shoes used for court sports are subjected to heavy abuse. The key to finding a good court shoe is its sole. Field sports include shoes for soccer, football, and baseball. These shoes often are cleated, studded, or spiked. The spike and stud formations vary from sport to sport, but generally there are replaceable or detachable cleats, spikes, or studs affixed onto nylon soles.

When it comes to track and field, athletic shoe companies produce many models for various foot types. One brand does not meet the needs of everyone, and the latest innovation or most expensive shoe may not be your best choice. However, even the best-designed shoes in the world will not do the job if they do not fit properly. You can avoid foot problems by finding a shoe store that employs a pedorthist or professional shoe fitter who knows about the different shapes and styles of shoes.

Here’s some guidance for choosing the athletic shoe that’s best for you:

Running Shoes:  A good running shoe should have ample cushioning to absorb shock, though there are advocates for minimalist running shoes with almost no cushioning. If you choose a cushioned shoe, look for overall shock absorption for the foot and good heel control. This may help prevent shin splints, tendinitis, heel pain, stress fractures, and other overuse syndromes.

Joggers should wear a shoe with more cushioning for impact. Running shoes are designed to provide maximum overall shock absorption for the foot. Such a shoe should also have good heel control. Together, these attributes help prevent shin splints, tendinitis, heel pain, stress fractures, and other overuse syndromes.

Walking Shoes:  If walking is a major athletic activity for you, wear a lightweight shoe. Look for extra shock absorption in the heel of the shoe,especially under the ball of the foot (the metatarsal area). This will help reduce heel pain (plantar fasciitis and pump bumps) as well as burning and tenderness in the ball of the foot (metatarsalgia). A shoe with a slightly rounded sole or rocker bottom also helps to smoothly shift weight from the heel to the toes while decreasing the forces across the foot. Walking shoes have more rigidity in the front so you can roll off your toes rather than bend through them as you do with running shoes.

Aerobic Shoes:  Shoes for aerobic conditioning should be lightweight to prevent foot fatigue and have extra shock absorption in the sole beneath the ball of the foot (metatarsal area), where the most stress occurs.

Tennis Shoes: Tennis players need a shoe that supports the foot during quick side-to-side movements or shifts in weight. A shoe that provides stability on the inside and outside of the foot is an important choice. Flexibility in the sole beneath the ball of the foot allows repeated, quick forward movements for a fast reaction at the net. You need slightly less shock absorption in the shoe if you’re playing tennis or other racquet sports. On soft courts, wear a softer-soled shoe that allows better traction. On hard courts, you want a sole with greater tread.

Basketball Shoes:  For basketball, choose a shoe with a thick, stiff sole. This gives extra stability when running on the court. A high-top shoe may provide added support but won’t necessarily decrease the risk of ankle sprain or injury.

Cross Trainers:  Cross-training shoes, or cross trainers, combine several of the above features so that you can participate in more than one sport. A good cross trainer should have the flexibility in the forefoot you need for running, combined with the lateral control necessary for aerobics or tennis.

We don’t necessarily need a different pair of shoes for every sport in which we participate. Generally, wear sport-specific shoes for sports you play more than three times a week. If you have worked out for some time injury-free, then stick with the particular shoe you have been wearing. There is really no reason to change.

For special problems, you may need a special shoe. If your ankles turn easily, you may need to wear a shoe with a wide heel. If you have trouble with shin splints, you may need a shoe with better shock absorption.

If the shoe fits, buy it!

Here are some useful guidelines for buying new athletic shoes:

  • If possible, purchase athletic shoes from a specialty store. The staff will provide valuable input on the type of shoe needed for your sport as well as help with proper fitting. This may cost a little more, but is worthwhile, particularly for shoes that are used often.
  • Don’t go just by size. Have your feet measured, and choose shoes that fit the larger foot first.
  • Try on athletic shoes after a workout or run and at the end of the day. Your feet will be at their largest.
  • Wear the same type of sock that you will wear for that sport.
  • When the shoe is on your foot, you should be able to freely wiggle all of your toes.
  • The shoes should be comfortable as soon as you try them on. There is no break-in period.
  • Walk or run a few steps in your shoes. They should be comfortable.
  • Always re-lace the shoes you are trying on. You should begin at the farthest eyelets and apply even pressure as you create a crisscross lacing pattern to the top of the shoe.
  • There should be a firm grip of the shoe to your heel. Your heel should not slip as you walk or run.
  • If you participate in a sport three or more times a week, you need a sport-specific shoe. Remember that after 300 to 500 miles of running or 300 hours of aerobic activity, the cushioning material in a shoe is usually worn down and it’s time to toss the shoes.
  • If you have bunions or hammertoes, find a shoe with a wide toe box. You should be able to fully extend your toes when you’re standing, and shoes should be comfortable from the moment you put them on. They will not stretch out.
  • Women who have big or wide feet should consider buying men’s or boys’ shoes, which are cut wider for the same length.

Finally, if your feet or back hurt, you should get them checked out by a physician. For the best advice, see an orthopedic surgeon, a doctor specializing in diseases of the bones and joints. The orthopedic surgeon is trained to treat problems of the foot and ankle. Pedorthists and orthotists are trained to make and modify arch supports (orthoses) and fulfill the surgeon’s prescription. Working with these professionals will ensure you get the right shoe for the best possible treatment.

Proper-fitting sports shoes can enhance performance and prevent injuries. But whatever you choose to wear on your feet, get out there, have fun, and be healthy!


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Flu Shot Protocols for Employers

The cost of getting sick taxes employers and employees alike. Chronic illness and injuries—though not always anticipated—can be managed, but it’s hard to limit exposure to viruses and bacteria. However, there are steps we can take to mitigate the chances that we and our fellow workers will come down with and share certain contagious illnesses, especially in the workplace.

High on the list of contagions that can be controlled is influenza, or the flu. Every year, millions of Americans contract the flu, losing three to five days of work or more, requiring visits to physicians or walk-in clinics, and for many, a stay in the hospital. It’s also life threatening for seniors, small children and adults with compromised immune or respiratory systems. The annual medical costs run in the billions, as do the costs of lost productivity.

With easy, convenient, and affordable access to safe immunizations for preventing the flu, employers across the country, especially in the healthcare industry, are taking a more proactive stance toward ensuring employee compliance. Some companies are shooting for 100%compliance, launching educational campaigns, team competitions, rallies, and incentive options such as discounts and premiums. Others are taking a carrot and stick approach, linking employer contribution incentives to medical savings accounts. Others are just wielding the stick, insisting that employees receive a flu vaccination as a condition of employment, with exceptions for those who have legitimate religious concerns or allergies to the vaccination.

Recognizing the central role businesses and employers play in protecting the health and safety of their employees, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have produced materials intended to guide employers in their planning and preparedness for seasonal and pandemic influenza. The guidance is intended to help employers take actions to decrease influenza spread, maintain business continuity, and secure critical infrastructure. OSHA recommends that employers prioritize vaccination because it is a long-term and effective intervention that reduces reliance on employee behavioral changes such as hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette.

As far back as February of 2010, the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) released their provisional recommendation that all people six months of age or older receive an annual influenza vaccination, unless contraindicated. The CDC also recommends that employers encourage employees to seek vaccination against both seasonal and pandemic influenza, offer influenza vaccination opportunities at their worksite or consider allowing employees time off from work to seek vaccination.

Despite the potential benefits of vaccination, self-reports within the National Health Interview Survey suggest that vaccine coverage among healthy adults 18 to 49 years is only approximately 20%. Offering vaccination in the workplace could increase coverage by making vaccination more convenient, and reducing or eliminating the associated cost may further improve influenza vaccine participation.

Studies have shown that individuals who received influenza vaccine at work cited convenience as an important factor in the decision to be vaccinated. Following physicians’ offices, workplaces are the most common location to receive an influenza vaccination, with one-third of 18- to 49-year-old vaccine recipients and one-fifth of 50 to 64-year-old vaccine recipients receiving the vaccine at work. The addition of workplace education programs can provide information and alleviate employees’ concerns and misinformation about influenza vaccination.

Compliance and the law

More and more healthcare employers are requiring that all employees get the influenza vaccine in order to help protect patients and coworkers during flu season. This trend has resulted in questions pertaining to the legality of such policies, as well as how to properly implement a mandatory influenza vaccination policy for employees. Employers may adopt mandatory flu shot policies which are drafted and implemented in a legally compliant manner.

As a condition of employment, an employer may require that all employees receive a flu shot. However, an employer’s compulsory flu shot policy must provide for exemptions in order to comply with various laws regulating the employer/employee relationship. For example, if an employee with a physical or mental disability refuses a flu shot, the employer may have to make a reasonable accommodation in order to comply with the federal Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A reasonable accommodation could take the form of exempting the employee from the requirement and instead requiring a different protective measure, such as wearing a surgical mask. Similarly, if an employee objects due to a sincerely held religious belief, the employer may also have to provide a reasonable accommodation, unless doing so would impose an undue hardship on the employer.

If an employee refuses to comply with the employer’s policy and/or any reasonable alternative protective measures required by the employer if an exemption is granted, an at-will employer may pursue disciplinary action which could include termination. Employers should consult knowledgeable legal counsel before making employment-based decisions.

Employers wishing to require flu shots should adopt a written flu shot policy so that all employees have reasonable advance notice that receiving an annual influenza vaccination is a condition of employment. The policy should set an annual compliance deadline based on the anticipated start of the flu season and outline consequences for noncompliance. For instance, the policy may list the steps triggered by noncompliance, such as a written warning, suspension, and termination if the noncompliance is not addressed within a certain time frame. The policy should also specify what written documentation the employee must furnish the employer to prove that the employee was vaccinated.

An Employer’s Policy Should Include Exemptions

An employer’s influenza vaccination policy should provide a process for employees to request an exemption from the employer. Additionally, the policy should notify employees that if the employer grants an exemption, employees are required to comply, as a condition of employment, with reasonable alternative protective measures specified by the employer.
Exemptions should be allowed for reasons such as

  • A sincerely held religious belief or creed;
  • A qualifying physical or mental disability;
  • A prior severe allergic reaction to the flu shot;
  • A history of Guillain-Barré Syndrome; or
  • Some other relevant medical reason.

Ultimately, educating employees about the benefits and importance of the flu shot may help maximize employee participation. Just like frequent hand washing, the flu shot is an important protective measure for employees and their families. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recommend that all U.S. health care workers get vaccinated annually against influenza. The CDC has a variety of resources related to influenza vaccination  that may be helpful to employers and employees, especially those in the healthcare field.


Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Are You a Candidate for Medical Marijuana?

Though the debate about the use of medical marijuana continues in many states and in Washington, DC, close to half of the country — including Connecticut — has legalized the use of cannabis and its cannabinoids for medicinal purposes for treating a variety of conditions.

Use must be approved by a Connecticut-licensed physician or an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), who must write a prescription that only can be filled at a licensed dispensary using products produced locally by a handful of State-approved growers.

To qualify, a patient needs to be diagnosed as having one of the following debilitating medical conditions that is specifically identified in the law, including:  Cancer, glaucoma, HIV, AIDS, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, certain types of damage to the nervous tissue of the spinal cord, epilepsy, cachexia, wasting syndrome, Crohn’s disease or post-traumatic stress disorder. Other approved medicinal uses include:

  • Sickle Cell Disease
  • Post Laminectomy Syndrome with Chronic Radiculopathy
  • Severe Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • Ulcerative Colitis
  • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

The laws regarding medical marijuana are fluid and constantly changing, as a board of physicians and legislators reflect on patient needs, other available drugs and therapies, and new research. The following additional medical conditions are now covered for patients over 18 (excluding inmates confined in a correctional institution of facility under the Department of Correction, regardless of their medical condition), although patients under 18 also qualify, with certain restrictions and requirements:

  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Irreversible Spinal Cord Injury with Objective Neurological Indication of Intractable Spasticity
  • Terminal Illness Requiring End-Of-Life Care
  • Uncontrolled Intractable Seizure Disorder

The first step is to make an appointment with the physician treating you for the debilitating condition for which you seek to use medical marijuana. You will not be able to register in the system until the Department receives a certification from your physician or APRN that you have been diagnosed with a condition that qualifies for the use of medical marijuana and that, in his or her opinion, the potential benefits of the palliative use of marijuana would likely outweigh the health risks.

Patients with a prescription for medical marijuana need to complete an application with the State Department of Consumer Protection, which oversees this program in Connecticut. The process involves providing proof the patient still lives in Connecticut; an updated photograph; certifications that have to be completed online or in writing; and the payment of a program fee. Medical marijuana in Connecticut is not a covered health insurance benefit.

Qualifying patient applications take between two to three weeks to process. Upon approval of the application, a temporary certificate is emailed to the patient. This temporary certificate is valid for 30 days from the approval date of the application. The temporary certificate will allow patients to use their selected dispensary facility while their permanent Medical Marijuana Certificate is being mailed.

Patients must visit their selected dispensary in advance of filling their prescription as part of the screening process. Then, once approved, they can fill their prescription by accessing medical marijuana in a variety of forms and strengths. This includes product for smoking for those who might have trouble ingesting this medicine, or who prefer this delivery method. Prescriptions also cover the use of liquids, lozenges, edibles and other styles.

Though legalized, there are rules restricting use. For example, the law prohibits ingesting marijuana in a bus or any moving vehicle; in the workplace; on any school grounds (public or private), dormitory, college or university property; in any public place; or in the presence of anyone under 18. It also prohibits any use of palliative marijuana that endangers the health or well-being of another person, other than the patient or primary caregiver.

Finally, not every physician or APRN may be willing to write a prescription for medical marijuana, despite legalization. The Department of Consumer Protection does not require physicians or hospitals to recognize marijuana as an appropriate medical treatment in general or for any specific patient. If you believe that your physician is not providing you with the best medical care for your condition, then you may want to consider working with a different physician.

For more information, visit http://www.ct.gov/dcp and look for the section for medical marijuana under Laws & Regulations.


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Natural Remedies: Cheap and Accessible

The next time you get too much sun exposure, bitten by a bug, abused by a stinging insect, break out into a rash or burn yourself on a hot pot, consider what remedies might be available to you if you didn’t have access to a medicine cabinet full of salves, creams and potions, or a drug store right down the block. Americans have been practicing home remedies for generations. Many are passed down from grandparents, some brought from Europe or other continents. Families swear by them, even though there’s the risk that future generations won’t remember them by the time they’re adults.

But there’s a treasure trove of natural healing at our fingertips, from toothpaste, apple cider vinegar, wet aspirins and aloe vera on our bee bites, to yogurt on our sunburn, honey on our cuts, and other practical and simple home-healthcare remedies. And in many cases, there’s science to back up what our grandparents already knew:  These things work, they’re cheap and they’re easily accessible.

For example, baking soda is a staple in many homes for baking and cleaning purposes – but there’s a good chance you’re not taking full advantage of all that baking soda has to offer, such as safely removing splinters from our fingers, or brushing your teeth.

In its natural form, baking soda is known as nahcolite, which is part of the mineral natron. It contains large amounts of sodium bicarbonate, which has been used since ancient times. For instance, the Egyptians used natron as a soap for cleansing purposes. Later, anecdotal reports throughout history suggest that many civilizations used forms of baking soda when making bread and other foods that required rising.

Some people believe that when taken internally, baking soda can help maintain the pH balance in our bloodstream. This is likely the basic premise behind its recommended uses against both colds and influenza symptoms. But that’s barely scratching the surface. Baking soda mixed in water helps neutralize stomach acid; soaking a finger or area of your body that has a splinter in the same solution will help raise the splinter to the surface. Adding baking soda to a lukewarm bath is a natural sunburn remedy, or it can be added to a small amount of water and applied directly to the burnt area.

A pinch of baking soda in water makes a paste that’s an effective deodorant, and mixing six parts baking soda to one part sea salt in a blender makes an excellent tooth paste for whitening and fighting plaque. Finally, a similar paste applied to bug bites relieves itching, and it works similarly for itchy rashes and poison ivy. It also is an effective foot soak, exfoliator for face and body, and detox bath for soaking away aches and pains (and it cleans the tub at the same time!).

Honey is another useful home remedy. Some people apply honey directly to the skin for wound healing, burns, sunburn, cataracts, and diabetic foot ulcers. Topical use of honey has a long history. In fact, it is considered one of the oldest-known wound dressings. Honey was used by the ancient Greek physician Dioscorides in 50 A.D. for sunburn and infected wounds. Honey’s healing properties are mentioned in the Bible, Koran, and Torah.

Studies have shown honey to be helpful in healing wounds, and it may be a potent antibiotic.  Honey appears to draw fluid from the underlying circulation, providing both a moist environment and topical nutrition that enhances tissue growth. Honey also may spur debridement — the removal of dead tissue around a wound to make way for healthy tissue. To treat bee stings with honey, apply a small amount to the affected area. Cover with a loose bandage and leave it on for up to an hour.

Honey is used for coughs, asthma, and hay fever. It is a known remedy for treating diarrhea and certain types of stomach ulcers caused by bacterial infection. Honey also is used as a source of carbohydrates during vigorous exercise, and it is added as a fragrance and a moisturizer in soaps and cosmetics.

A cool milk compress is one of the quickest, simplest and lowest-cost ways to treat sunburn. It doesn’t get much easier than just heading to the refrigerator for relief! The initial coolness of the milk will ease the heat, while it also creates a layer of protein to protect your skin, help it heal, and further soothe discomfort. Milk’s cousin, yogurt, is equally effective for treating sunburn. Live cultured plain yogurt contains an abundance of probiotics and enzymes that help heal our skin. Make sure it’s truly plain yogurt, not vanilla, and that it has probiotics, and apply it liberally to the affected area.

Everyone experiences nausea at one point or another. Whether yours is related to pregnancy, acid reflux, a virus or bacterial illness or cancer treatment, natural remedies may provide some relief. Stocking your pantry with natural treatments for nausea can help you get through your discomfort.

Ginger, for example, has a long history of being used to treat nausea, stomachaches, and diarrhea. The Chinese have used ginger to treat a variety of digestive and pain issues for more than 2,000 years. It’s unclear exactly how ginger works to ease nausea, but it’s thought that active components, such as gingerol, directly affect the digestive and central nervous systems.

Another useful home treatment for stomach ailments and nausea is peppermint, which relaxes stomach muscles so that bile can break down fats and food can move through the stomach quickly. Peppermint comes in many forms and treatments, including ointments for skin irritation. Some studies even suggest that the scent of peppermint oil could ease nausea. But if you have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), you should not use peppermint.

Puffiness around the eyes from allergies or rashes can be treated by using home remedies like cucumbers or cold chamomile tea bags to help reduce the inflammation and swelling. Cucumbers have powerful antioxidants and flavinoids that are thought to reduce irritation, and chamomile also has antioxidants and healing properties.

There are many more home remedies that are inexpensive and effective. Take the time to learn what they are and how to use them, and you’ll save money, time and needless trips to the pharmacy!


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

Memory loss and aging: What’s “normal?”

Head upstairs for something and come back down without it? Find yourself struggling to remember someone’s last name or phone number? Take a wrong turn going somewhere you’ve been driving to for years? Forget to pay a monthly bill? Forgetfulness may be upsetting, but examples like these are common as we age and nothing to worry about. Yet for many older Americans, forgetting things on an increasingly regular basis may be a sign of oncoming dementia or a form of Alzheimer’s, a degenerative brain disease that affects close to one in four Americans.

Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth-leading cause of death among U.S. adults, and the fifth-leading cause among adults aged 65 to 85. In 2013, an estimated 5 million Americans aged 65 years or older had Alzheimer’s disease. This number may triple by 2050, with the costs of care already projected at over $200 billion per year, and expected to increase to more than $500 billion by 2040.

Alzheimer’s disease causes large numbers of nerve cells in the brain to die. This affects a person’s ability to remember things, think clearly, and use good judgment. It typically involves parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language. While doctors don’t know what causes the disease, they do know that most of the time it begins after age 60.

Dementia is a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life, and Alzheimer’s disease is the most common. It often starts slowly. In fact, some people don’t know they have it and assume their forgetfulness is just a sign of increasing age. However, over time, their memory problems get more serious. People with Alzheimer’s disease have trouble doing everyday things like driving a car, cooking a meal, or shopping or paying bills. They may get lost easily and find even simple things confusing. Some people become worried, angry or violent.

As the illness progresses, people with Alzheimer’s disease need someone to help take care of their daily needs, including feeding and bathing. Some people with Alzheimer’s live at home with a caregiver. Other people with the disease live in a nursing home or in a facility that specializes in dementia-related illnesses.

Though age is the best-known risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, researchers believe that genetics may play a role. Changes in the brain can begin years before the first symptoms appear, and scientists are studying whether education, diet, exercise and environment play roles in developing Alzheimer’s disease. They also are finding more evidence that some of the risk factors for heart disease and stroke — such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and low levels of the vitamin folate — may also increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

While most changes in the brain that cause dementia are permanent and worsen over time, thinking and memory problems caused by depression, medication side effects, excess use of alcohol, vitamin deficiencies  or thyroid problems may improve when the condition is treated or addressed.

How to recognize signs of early dementia

Alzheimer’s disease is not a normal part of aging. And while memory loss affects all of us as we age, it also is typically one of the first warning signs of cognitive loss.

Different types of dementia are associated with particular types of brain cell damage in specific regions of the brain. For example, in Alzheimer’s disease, high levels of certain proteins inside and outside brain cells make it hard for brain cells to stay healthy and to communicate with each other. The brain region called the hippocampus is the center of learning and memory in the brain, and the brain cells in this region are often the first to be damaged. That’s why memory loss is often one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s.

According to the National Institute on Aging, in addition to memory problems, someone with Alzheimer’s disease may experience one or more of the following signs:

  • Gets lost
  • Has trouble handling money and paying bills
  • Repeats questions
  • Takes longer to complete normal daily tasks
  • Displays poor judgment
  • Loses things or misplacing them in odd places
  • Displays mood and personality changes.

There is no one test to determine if someone has dementia. Doctors diagnose Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia based on a careful medical history, a physical examination, laboratory tests, and the characteristic changes in thinking, day-to-day function and behavior associated with each type. It’s hard to determine the exact type of dementia because the symptoms and brain changes of different dementias can overlap. In some cases, a doctor may diagnose “dementia” and not specify a type. If this occurs it may be necessary to see a specialist such as a neurologist or gero-psychologist.

Treatment of dementia depends on its cause. In the case of most progressive dementias, including Alzheimer’s disease, there is no cure and no treatment that slows or stops its progression. But there are drug treatments that may temporarily improve symptoms, and it’s important to note that other causes of dementia-like behavior – such as from head injuries, alcohol abuse and depression – can be treated.

Protecting our brains

Evidence also is growing for physical, mental, and social activities as protective factors against Alzheimer’s disease. Our brain is nourished by one of our body’s richest networks of blood vessels. Anything that damages blood vessels anywhere in our body can damage blood vessels in our brain, depriving brain cells of vital food and oxygen. Blood vessel changes in the brain are linked to vascular dementia. They often are present along with changes caused by other types of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. These changes may interact to cause faster decline or make impairments more severe.

We can help protect our brains with some of the same strategies that protect our heart – don’t smoke; take steps to keep our blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar within recommended limits; and maintain a healthy weight.

Regular physical exercise may help lower the risk of some types of dementia. Evidence suggests exercise may directly benefit brain cells by increasing blood and oxygen flow to the brain. And what we eat may have its greatest impact on brain health through its effect on heart health. The best current evidence suggests that heart-healthy eating patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, also may help protect the brain. A Mediterranean diet includes relatively little red meat and emphasizes whole grains, fruits and vegetables, fish and shellfish, and nuts, olive oil and other healthy fats.

If you or someone you know has several or even some of the signs of increasing forgetfulness, it does not mean that you or they have Alzheimer’s disease. It is important to consult a health care provider regarding concerns about memory loss, thinking skills, or behavioral changes.


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!

The Message Doesn’t Get Old, but Our Skin Does

We love the sun, especially after a dreary winter and rainy spring. Whether working or playing outdoors, attending parties and picnics, enjoying trips to the beach, or just hanging on the deck or in the yard, we soak up those rays, get our vitamin D, and savor our 2017 tans. But this year, as the perennial warnings about sun exposure and the dangers of Ultraviolet (UV) rays hit the air waves, take note: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States, and you can help minimize exposure and prevent its onset by taking simple precautions.

Unprotected exposure to UV radiation is the most preventable risk factor for skin cancer. In fact, UV radiation from the sun and tanning beds is classified as a human carcinogen by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the World Health Organization. Each year, more new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the U.S. than new cases of breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancer combined. One in five Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime, and one American dies from skin cancer every hour.

Chronic exposure to the sun suppresses our natural immune system and also causes premature aging, which over time can make the skin become thick, wrinkled and leathery. Since it occurs gradually, often manifesting itself many years after the majority of a person’s sun exposure, premature aging is often regarded as an unavoidable, normal part of growing older. However, up to 90% of the visible skin changes commonly attributed to aging are caused by the sun. With proper protection from UV radiation, many forms of skin cancer and most premature aging of the skin can be avoided.

Properly protecting ourselves from UV exposure

The best way to lower our risk of skin cancer is to protect our skin from the sun and ultraviolet light. Using sunscreen and avoiding the sun helps reduce the chance of many aging skin changes, including some skin cancers. However, it is important not to rely too much on sunscreen alone. You should also not use sunscreen as an excuse to increase the amount of time you spend in the sun. Even with the use of sunscreen, people should not stay out too long during peak sunlight hours; UV rays can still penetrate our clothes and skin and do harm.

When possible, avoid sun exposure during the peak hours of 10:00 am to 4:00 pm, when UV rays are the strongest. Clouds and haze do not protect you from the sun, so use sun protection even on cloudy days.

Use sunscreens that block out both UVA and UVB radiation. Products that contain either zinc oxide or titanium oxide offer the best protection. Less expensive products that have the same ingredients work as well as expensive ones. Older children and adults (even those with darker skin) benefit from using SPFs (sun protection factor) of 15 and over. Many experts recommend that most people use SPF 30 or higher on the face and 15 or higher on the body, and people who burn easily or have risk factors for skin cancer should use SPF 50+.

Here’s how to use sunscreen to ensure the best possible protection from the sun’s damaging UV rays:

  • Adults and children should wear sunscreen every day, even if they go outdoors for only a short time.
  • Apply 30 minutes before going outdoors for best results. This allows time for the sunscreen to be absorbed.
  • Remember to use sunscreen during the winter when snow and sun are both present.
  • Reapply at least every two hours while you are out in the sunlight.
  • Reapply after swimming or sweating. Waterproof formulas last for about 40 minutes in the water, and water-resistant formulas last half as long.
  • Adults and children should wear hats with wide brims to shield from the sun’s rays.
  • Wear protective clothing. Look for loose-fitting, unbleached, tightly woven fabrics. The tighter the weave, the more protective the garment.
  • Avoid sun lamps, tanning beds, and tanning salons.
  • Buy clothing and swimwear that block out UV rays. This clothing is rated using SPF (as used with sunscreen) or a system called the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) index.
  • Avoid surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and white-painted areas.
  • Beware that at higher altitudes we burn more quickly.

The sun’s rays are important to our health, in moderation, but we get more than enough just by being outdoors for normal activities like going to work and to school, and when puttering in the yard or walking the dog. Taking simple, painless steps to help protect ourselves and our children now can make a huge difference later in life.


 

Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!