Glaucoma Awareness

Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye’s optic nerve. It usually occurs when fluid builds up in the front part of your eye which increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve. It can lead to blindness if not treated.

January is Glaucoma Awareness Month. It’s estimated that over 2.2 million Americans have glaucoma, but only half of those know they have it. Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness in the world, according to the World Health Organization, and after cataracts, is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. In the United States, more than 120,000 people are blind from glaucoma, accounting for between nine percent and 12 percent of all cases of blindness.

Everyone is at risk for glaucoma, from babies to senior citizens. Older people are at a higher risk for glaucoma but babies can be born with glaucoma (approximately one out of every 10,000 babies born in the United States). Young adults can get glaucoma, too. African Americans in particular are susceptible at a younger age.

The most common types of glaucoma — primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma — have completely different symptoms.

Primary open-angle glaucoma signs and symptoms include:

  • Gradual loss of peripheral vision, usually in both eyes
  • Tunnel vision in the advanced stages

Acute angle-closure glaucoma signs and symptoms include:

  • Eye pain
  • Nausea and vomiting (accompanying the severe eye pain)
  • Sudden onset of visual disturbance, often in low light
  • Blurred vision
  • Halos around lights
  • Reddening of the eye

Both open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma can be primary or secondary conditions. They’re called primary when the cause is unknown and secondary when the condition can be traced to a known cause such as eye injury, medications, certain eye conditions, inflammation, tumor, advanced cataract or diabetes. In secondary glaucoma, the signs and symptoms can include those of the primary condition as well as typical glaucoma symptoms.

When to see your doctor

Don’t wait for noticeable eye problems before seeing a doctor. Primary open-angle glaucoma gives few warning signs until permanent damage has already occurred. Regular eye exams are the key to detecting glaucoma early enough to successfully treat the condition and prevent further progression.

The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends a comprehensive eye exam for all adults starting at age 40, and every three to five years after that if you don’t have any glaucoma risk factors. If you have other risk factors or you’re older than age 60, you should be screened every one to two years. If you’re African-American, your doctor likely will recommend periodic eye exams starting between ages 20 and 39.

In addition, a severe headache or pain in your eye, nausea, blurred vision, or halos around lights may be the symptoms of an acute angle-closure glaucoma attack. If you experience some or several of these symptoms together, seek immediate care at an emergency room or at an eye doctor’s (ophthalmologist’s) office right away.

Glaucoma is not curable, and vision lost cannot be regained. With medication and/or surgery, it is possible to halt further loss of vision. Since open-angle glaucoma is a chronic condition, it must be monitored for life. Diagnosis is the first step to preserving your vision – regular eye exams should be part of your personal wellness regimen, especially since there are a variety of other eye ailments that can afflict us. Through a regular eye exam, doctors can detect early warning signs for other diseases ranging from cancer to stroke.

 


Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!