Using Steroids Safely and Appropriately

The use of steroids and other natural and synthetic substances by professional athletes often is in the news.  Used primarily for building muscle mass and expanding strength and endurance, these drugs, many obtained illegally, give users an “edge” that is considered unfair.  Many Russian athletes were not allowed to compete in this summer’s Olympic Games in Rio due to their use of banned drugs, and controversy has swirled around famous baseball players, runners and biking legend Lance Armstrong over their use of steroids and other performance-enhancing supplements.  But there are many kinds of steroids, including those used by physicians to treat allergies, asthma, arthritis and many chronic illnesses.

Steroids, known medically as corticosteroids, can reduce inflammation associated with allergies, rashes or itching. They prevent and treat nasal stuffiness, sneezing, and runny nose due to seasonal or year-round allergies. They can also decrease inflammation and swelling from other types of reactions.

Systemic steroids are available in various forms as pills or liquids for serious allergies or asthma, locally acting nasal sprays for seasonal or year-round allergies, topical creams for skin allergies, or topical eye drops for allergic conjunctivitis.

Steroids are highly effective drugs for allergies, but they must be taken regularly, often daily, to be of benefit — even when you aren’t feeling allergy symptoms. In addition, it may take one to two weeks before the full effect of the medicine can be felt.

Steroids are used for reducing joint or bone inflammation and for battling osteoporosis. They also are known to increase recovery times in individuals dramatically. Cortisol is a hormone which is produced inside our body to help it handle stress. Cortisol is responsible for causing damage to muscle tissues and slowing down the time taken for a human body to recuperate. Steroids are known to regulate the production of this hormone when an individual’s body is stressed. This helps bodies to recover from sustained injuries a lot faster than normal and allows more stamina while an individual is exercising.

Of note, potential side effects from oral steroids may include insomnia, increased appetite and weight gain, high blood pressure, lowered immune system resistance, stomach irritation and water retention.

Anabolic steroids were developed in the late 1930s primarily to treat hypogonadism, a condition in which the testes do not produce sufficient testosterone for normal growth, development, and sexual functioning. The primary medical uses of these compounds are to treat delayed puberty, some types of impotence, and wasting of the body caused by HIV infection, cancer or other diseases.

The dangers of steroid abuse

When we take small, prescribed doses of steroids for a short time in response to an inflammation or allergic reaction, our bodies eliminate or flush most of the residual compounds. However, people who abuse anabolic steroids usually take them orally or inject them into the muscles, where they remain for longer periods of time, and travel to our brains and other organs. These doses may be 10 to 100 times higher than doses prescribed to treat medical conditions. Steroids are also applied to the skin as a cream, gel, or patch.

Anabolic steroids do not have the same short-term effects on the brain as do other abused drugs. The most important difference is that steroids do not trigger rapid increases in the brain chemical dopamine, which causes the “high” that drives people to abuse other substances. However, long-term steroid abuse can act on some of the same brain pathways and chemicals — including dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems — that are affected by other drugs. This may result in a significant effect on mood and behavior.

Abuse of anabolic steroids also may lead to mental problems, such as:

  • Paranoid (extreme, unreasonable) jealousy
  • Extreme irritability
  • Delusions (false beliefs or ideas)
  • Impaired judgment

Extreme mood swings can also occur, including “roid rage” — angry feelings and behavior that may lead to violence. Additionally, anabolic steroid abuse may lead to serious, even permanent, health problems such as:

  • Kidney problems or failure
  • Liver damage
  • Enlarged heart, high blood pressure, and changes in blood cholesterol, all of which increase the risk of stroke and heart attack, even in young people

As with most medicines, supplements or drugs, steroids should be taken under the direction of a physician or medical professional. When used properly and as prescribed, they are incredibly effective and valuable. When abused or taken improperly, they can lead to a variety of negative side effects and behaviors with potentially long-term and life-threatening consequences.


Be sure to check out the CBIA Healthy Connections wellness program at your company’s next renewal. It’s free as part of your participation in CBIA Health Connections!