Preventing Eye Injuries at Your Workplace

Ninety percent of eye injuries are preventable

According to the National Institute of Health, more than 300,000 Americans visit the emergency room each year because of a workplace eye injury. About 40% of these injuries are from workers in the manufacturing, construction, and mining industries. These injuries cost industry an estimated $300 million each year in lost productivity, medical treatment, and workers compensation.

During March, the American Academy of Ophthalmologists reminded employers and workers  about the importance of eye protection, since 90% of these injuries are preventable with the appropriate eye protection.

The Academy’s public education website EyeSmart provides the following tips for avoiding eye injuries at work:

  • Wear protective eyewear whenever there is a chance of eye injury, such as anywhere there may be flying debris, falling objects, chemicals, and intense light and heat. This is particularly true of workers involved in welding. Among welders, their assistants, and nearby workers, UV radiation burns (welder’s flash) routinely damage workers’ eyes and surrounding tissue.
  • Make sure your eye protection is American National Standards Institute (ANSI)-approved, OSHA compliant, and appropriate for the hazards in your workplace. If you are working in an area that has particles, flying objects, or dust, you must at least wear safety glasses with side protection (side shields). If you are working with chemicals, you should wear goggles. If you are working near hazardous radiation (welding, lasers or fiber optics) you must use special-purpose safety glasses, goggles, face shields, or helmets designed for that task.

In case of an eye injury, follow the EyeSmart, Care and Treatment Recommendations for Eye Injury to learn the dos and don’ts of eye injury first aid:

  • If your eye has been cut or punctured. DO NOT remove the object stuck in eye, rinse with water, rub or apply pressure to eye. Avoid giving aspirin, ibuprofen, or other non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs. These drugs thin the blood and may increase bleeding. Instead, DO gently place a shield over the eye. The bottom of a paper cup taped to the bones surrounding the eye can serve as a shield until you get medical attention. After you have finished protecting the eye, see a physician immediately.
  • In case of a chemical burn to the eye, DO immediately flush the eye with plenty of clean water, and seek emergency medical treatment right away.
  • To treat a blow to the eye: DO NOT apply any pressure. DO gently apply a small cold compress to reduce pain and swelling. If a black eye, pain, or visual disturbance occurs even after a light blow, immediately contact an ophthalmologist—a medical doctor specializing in the diagnosis, medical, and surgical treatment of eye diseases and condition—or emergency room. Remember that even a light blow can cause a significant eye injury.
  • To treat sand or small debris in the eye: DO NOT rub the eye. DO use eyewash to flush the eye out. If the debris doesn’t come out, lightly bandage the eye and see an ophthalmologist or visit the nearest emergency room.

More information

OSHA Releases New Bulletin on Injury Recording Requirements

Part of larger effort to protect temporary workers

As part of its Temporary Worker Initiative, OSHA has released a new educational resource that focuses on requirements for recording injuries and illnesses suffered by temporary workers. The new Recordkeeping Bulletin explains the requirements for the staffing agency and the host employer and addresses how to identify who is responsible for recording work-related injuries and illnesses of temporary workers on the OSHA 300 log.

OSHA’s Temporary Worker Initiative is an agency-wide effort that uses enforcement, outreach, and training to assure that temporary workers are protected in their workplaces. In recent months, OSHA has received and investigated many reports of temporary workers suffering serious or fatal injuries, many of which occurred within their first week on the job. OSHA’s initiative was launched to raise awareness and compliance with requirements that temporary workers receive the same training and protection that permanent workers receive.

The temporary worker Recordkeeping Bulletin is the first in a series of guidance documents that will be released to support OSHA’s Temporary Worker Initiative.

For more information on OSHA recordkeeping and reporting requirements, click here.

Industries Most Likely to Be Inspected by OSHA in the Next 12 Months

Non-construction workplaces with 20 or more employees affected

On March 6, the OSHA promulgated its latest inspection plans for industries judged to be the most dangerous, that is those with the highest injury and illness rate. This program, known as Site-Specific Targeting (SST), is OSHA’s main programmed inspection plan for non-construction workplaces that have 20 or more employees.

The SST plan is based on data received from the prior year’s OSHA DATA Initiative (ODI) survey. The ODI survey and the SST program help OSHA achieve its goal of reducing. the number of injuries and illnesses that occur at individual workplaces by directing enforcement resources to those workplaces where the highest rate of injuries and illnesses have occurred.

Among manufacturers, the primary inspection list consists of manufacturing facilities with a Days Away, Restricted, or Transferred (DART) rate at or above 7.0, or manufacturing facilities with a Days Away from Work Injury and Illness (DAFWII) case rate of 5.0 or above.

Among the more significant aspects of SST-14:

  • Uses CY 2011 injury and illness data to compile the targeting lists for the secondary list establishments.
  • OSHA is continuing to work with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy (ASP) on a study to measure recidivism rates of establishments that have been inspected. ASP developed the methodology of the Evaluation Study of the Impact of SST Inspections and OSHA agreed to implement the study under the SST-11, SST-12, and SST-14 programs. The study will provide insight into the effectiveness of the program. OSHA’s Office of Statistical Analysis has randomly selected 2,250 establishments from both the SST-11 Primary and Secondary lists–for inspection pursuant to the Evaluation Study. These establishments were selected based on their CY 2009 injury and illness data (collected during the 2010 ODI). The SST-14 primary inspection lists for federal jurisdiction Area Offices will be comprised of 1,260 establishments selected as part of the Evaluation Study. All federal jurisdiction primary list establishments will be inspected under SST-14.
  • Programmed inspections of Nursing and Personal Care establishments will continue to be conducted under OSHA Directive CPL 03-00-016, National Emphasis Program – Nursing and Personal Care Facilities (NAICS 623110, 623210, and 623311).
  • Incorporates policy changes from OSHA Instruction CSP 03-02-003, OSHA Strategic Partnership for Worker Safety and Health, effective November 6, 2013.
  • An establishment will be deleted from the inspection list if the establishment received a comprehensive safety inspection or a records only inspection within 24 months of the opening conference date of the previous inspection.

Read the Complete document.


OSHA Announces National Stand-Down for Fall Protection

Among topics covered at CBIA’s 2014 Safety & Health Conference

As part as its ongoing  Fall Prevention Campaign, OSHA announced a national stand-down from
June 2 -6 to raise awareness among employers and workers about the hazards of falls, which account for the highest number of deaths in the construction industry.

During the stand-down, employers and workers are asked to pause their workday to talk about fall prevention in construction and discuss topics such as ladder safety, scaffolding safety, and roofing work safety.

OSHA has also launched an official national safety stand-down website with information on how to conduct a successful stand-down. Afterwards, employers will be able to provide feedback and receive a personalized certificate of participation.

CBIA’s Safety and Health Conference on May 22, which features Jim Mulligan, Assistant Regional Administrator, Region 1, OSHA, will address the issue of fall protection as it relates to general industry. Other topics to be covered at the conference include GHA update, electrical safety update, OSHA’s top 10 violations, business continuity planning, and employee accountability in the context of a company’s safety practices.


Is Your Injury Prevention Process Effective?

Preparing for I2P2

by Milton Jacobs

One of the major items currently on the docket at OSHA is the so called I2P2 regulation, or the Injury and Illness Prevention Plan.

I2P2 (if enacted) requires that employers establish a system to prevent worker injuries and illnesses using a coordinated and consistent approach.

Why are such initiatives important, and what are the benefits?

Here are four often overlooked benefits and incentives for establishing an effective injury prevention or safety process:

1. It’s the right thing to do. Implementation of a safety process shows your employees and the public (or your customers) that you care.

2. You’ll Save money and time. Accidents result in financial losses through increased insurance costs, lost time, employee replacement costs, lost productivity, and legal liability–not to mention the huge paperwork headache!

3. You’ll protect your corporate image. A serious accident or disaster that makes it into the local newspaper or onto the evening news will have a negative impact on your organization.

4.  Your insurance costs will go down. All major insurers expect to see a safety process in place to control risk. The weaker your process, the higher your premiums. Sometimes, an insurer might drop your coverage if there is too much risk at stake.

Workplace safety processes don’t have to be complex systems. One mistake businesses make is using a “one size fits all” approach (i.e., trying to copy and implement exactly what some other organization is doing) when establishing or redesigning a safety process.

The following questions below can offer some insight and direction into developing or improving your safety process.

  1. Have you undertaken a risk assessment of your operation, and if so, are your major safety hazards and accident risks controlled to an acceptable level?
  2. Is management support limited to just verbal support, or is there action behind the support?
  3. Are you measuring how effective your safety process is, and if so, are the statistics in use the ones that measure incidents after they occur, before they occur, or both (i.e. OSHA incident rate, etc.)?
  4. Are employee incentives in place for production greater than those for excellent safety practices and performance?
  5. Are employees empowered to stop a work process if there is strong evidence of a serious or imminent danger situation?
  6. Is there good cross communication (including education) among employees, supervisors, and management on safety and health issues?
  7. Is there a fear of retaliation for reporting an unsafe situation?
  8. Are appropriate actions taken to correct and/or address those workers that disregard or violate company safety policies and procedures?
  9. Do you have a system in place for addressing issues as they are uncovered?
  10. Do you perform a safety checkup periodically to see if things are working properly and to ensure hazards are eliminated or minimized to an acceptable level?

If you answer these questions and implement a simple process to address the issues identified, you are well on your way to establishing or improving your process.

Remember, accidents don’t just happen, they happen to be preventable!

Milton Jacobs is a safety speaker and consultant with Safety Solution Consultants, Inc., in East Granby, Connecticut. Contact him at

OSHA Activity Update

The latest from Washington

OSHA seeks nominations for members to serve on the National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

NACOSH was established under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 to advise the secretaries of labor and health and human services on occupational safety and health programs and policies.

OSHA seeks to fill all 12 committee positions, which consist of four public representatives and two representatives each for labor, management, and professionals in occupational safety and in occupational health. The health and human services secretary will designate four of these representatives for appointment by the secretary of labor: two public, one occupational health professional and one occupational safety professional. To create staggered terms, the secretary of labor will appoint six members to serve a two-year term and six to a three-year term. In the future, all members will go back to serving two-year terms.

Nominations may be submitted electronically, or by mail or facsimile. See the Federal Register notice for submission details. Nominations must be submitted by May 27, 2014.

OSHA renews alliance with Sealant Waterproofing and Restoration Institute

OSHA has renewed its alliance with the Sealant Waterproofing and Restoration Institute to provide information and training resources to help protect the safety and health of workers involved in waterproofing, sealant, and restoration activities. The alliance will focus on issues related to falls, small business, motor vehicle safety, and hazard communication.

“Workers in the sealant, waterproofing and restoration industry experience many of the hazards common to the construction industry, particularly fall hazards,” said Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health Dr. David Michaels. “By renewing our alliance with SWR Institute, we will continue our outreach to industry employers and workers and provide information and education important to preventing worker injuries, illnesses, and fatalities.”

Through the alliance, OSHA and SWR Institute will develop toolbox talks and case studies on key OSHA initiatives such as falls and heat stress. The alliance will continue distributing information on the agency’s Falls in Construction and Heat Illness Prevention campaigns. Additionally, the alliance will continue distributing safety and health information and products in English and Spanish to help protect the industry’s diverse workforce.

More information

OSHA seeks nominations for members to serve on Whistleblower Protection Advisory Committee

OSHA has announced that nominations are being accepted for members to serve on the Whistleblower Protection Advisory Committee (WPAC).

WPAC was established to advise and make recommendations to the secretary of labor and the assistant secretary for occupational safety and health on ways to improve the fairness, efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency of OSHA’s whistleblower protection activities.

OSHA seeks to fill 12 committee positions that will become vacant Jan. 1, 2015. The agency is initiating staggered terms whereby six members will be appointed to one-year terms and six will be appointed to two-year terms. OSHA is seeking to fill one public, one State Occupational Safety and Health Plan, two management, and two labor representatives to one-year terms. The agency also seeks to fill two management, two labor, and two public representatives to two-year terms. Additionally, the committee will have three non-voting members selected by the secretary of labor who are government employees from other federal agencies that have jurisdiction over statutes with whistleblower provisions. Current committee members can be re-nominated.

Nominations may be submitted electronically or by mail or facsimile. See the Federal Register notice for submission details. Nominations must be submitted by May 12, 2014.


Healthy Aging at Work

Older workers experience fewer injuries at work than their younger counterparts

By 2015, one in every five American workers will be over 65 and in 2020, one in four American workers will be over 55, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Although there is no consensus on the age at which workers are considered “older workers,” the aging workforce phenomenon is real—and global.

These demographic shifts have made the issue of healthier workers, especially those of advanced age, much more pressing. Vital to any workplace is the safety, health, and well-being of the workforce, especially as workers age.

Safety and Health Outcomes Associated with Aging and Work

Aging affects a variety of health conditions and outcomes, including both chronic health conditions and likelihood of on-the-job injury. However, the exact nature of these relationships has only recently been better understood, and it is quickly becoming clear that appropriate programs and support in the workplace, community, or at home can help workers live longer, more productive lives.

Chronic Conditions and Aging

Arthritis and hypertension are the two most common health conditions affecting older workers, impacting 47% and 44%, respectively, of workers over the age of 55. An even greater proportion of workers (more than 75%) are estimated to have at least one chronic health condition that requires management.

Diabetes is perhaps the most costly of these; one study found that one-third of all Medicare spending goes towards management of diabetes. The frequency of these conditions and others in older adults has important implications for workers’ ability to physically perform their duties. Higher morbidity means more absenteeism when an employee feels sick and more presenteeism when an employee is ill but shows up to work regardless.

However, individual health risk factors are a stronger influence on future healthcare-associated costs than advancing age alone. In comparing young workers with high risk of chronic disease (five or more risk factors) to older workers with few or no risk factors, the younger workers had significantly higher medical costs associated despite the disparity in the age groups: 19-34 year olds, versus older workers aged 65-74.

Safety and Aging

As for safety on the job, workers who are older actually tend to experience fewer workplace injuries than their younger colleagues. This may be because of experience gathered from years in the workplace, or because of factors such as increased caution and awareness of relative physical limitations. The caution is well-founded. When accidents involving older workers do occur, the workers often require more time to heal, underscoring the need for a well-planned return to work program. In addition, incidents affecting older workers are more likely to be fatal, underscoring the need for employers to be mindful of how best to adapt the conditions of work to protect workers as well as explore opportunities for preventative programs that can maintain or build the health of employees through their working life.

Benefits of an Age-Friendly Workforce

Employers increasingly see the value that older workers bring to the job. Older workers have greater institutional knowledge and usually more experience. They often possess more productive work habits than their younger counterparts. They report lower levels of stress on the job, and in general, they get along better with their coworkers. Finally, they tend to be more cautious on the job and more likely to follow safety rules and regulations.

Workplaces, often out of necessity, have adapted to older workers. Both the Age Discrimination Employment Act of 1967 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibit workplace discrimination based on age or disability, respectively, and support the retention of qualified workers despite limitations that may come from age or disability. However, some employers are more proactive than others, realizing that a well-designed, employee-centered approach to the physical nature and organization of work benefits all workers regardless of their age.

Workplace design, the flexibility of the work schedule, and certain ergonomic interventions increasingly focus on the needs of older employees. Many workplace accommodations are easy to make and are inexpensive. Modern orthotics, appropriate flooring and seating, optimal lighting, and new information technology hardware and software can smooth the way to continued work for older individuals. New emphasis on job sharing, flexible work schedules, and work from home can support added years in the job market for many. Although work may not be beneficial for all older persons, for many it is an important avenue to economic security, enhanced social interaction, and improved quality of life.

Simple Strategies for an Age-Friendly Workplace

Many effective workplace solutions are simple, don’t have to cost much, and can have big benefits if implemented properly with worker input and support throughout all levels of management.

Below are some strategies for preparing your workplace for a healthier, safer, and more age-friendly workforce:

  • Prioritize workplace flexibility. Workers prefer jobs that offer more flexibility over those that offer more vacation days. To the extent possible, give workers a say in their schedule, work conditions, work organization, work location, and work tasks.
  • Match tasks to abilities. Use self-paced work, self-directed rest breaks, and less repetitive tasks.
  • Avoid prolonged, sedentary work. Prolonged sedentary work is bad for workers at every age. Consider sit/stand workstations and walking workstations for workers who traditionally sit all day. Provide onsite physical activity opportunities or connections to low-cost community options.
  • Manage hazards, including noise, slip/trip hazards, and physical hazards—conditions that can challenge an aging workforce more.
  • Provide and design ergo-friendly work environments. Workstations, tools, floor surfaces, adjustable seating, better illumination where needed, and screens and surfaces with less glare.
  • Use teams and teamwork strategies for aging-associated problem solving. Workers closest to the problem are often best equipped to find the fix.
  • Provide health promotion and lifestyle interventions, including physical activity, healthy meal options, tobacco cessation assistance, risk factor reduction and screenings, coaching, and on-site medical care. Accommodate medical self-care in the workplace and time away for health visits.
  • Invest in training and building worker skills and competencies at all age levels. Help older employees adapt to new technologies, often a concern for employers and older workers.
  • Proactively manage reasonable accommodations and the return-to-work process after illness or injury absences.
  • Require aging workforce management skills training for supervisors. Include a focus on the most effective ways to manage a multi-generational workplace.

More information

Two Connecticut Firms Face OSHA Fines

Both cited in previous years for safety violations

Two Connecticut companies were recently cited by OSHA for serious safety violations. One, a manufacturer, was found to have committed repeated and serious violations of workplace safety standards at its facility. The company faces $56,430 in proposed fines following an inspection by OSHA’s Bridgeport Area Office begun Dec. 3, 2013, in response to a worker complaint.

Inspectors found several hazards similar to those cited in June 2010 at another of the company’s facilities, including failing to provide a program to ensure workers are trained to power down and lockout industrial saws prior to conducting maintenance; provide a chemical hazard communication program and training on the risks and safeguards associated with chemicals, such as paints and gels; and prevent usage of unapproved electrical equipment in areas that generate and accumulate combustible wood dust.

“Left uncorrected or allowed to recur, these conditions expose employees to hazardous chemicals, fire, and lacerations and amputation by activated machinery,” said Robert Kowalski, OSHA’s area director in Bridgeport. “An employer must ensure hazards are consistently and effectively addressed to provide employees a safe and healthful work environment.”

The conditions resulted in the issuance of eight repeat citations, with $53,460 in proposed fines. Additionally, one serious citation, with a fine of $2,970, was issued for an inadequately guarded radial arm saw.

A repeat violation exists when an employer has been cited previously for the same or a similar violation of a standard, regulation, rule, or order at any of its facilities in federal enforcement states within the last five years. A serious violation occurs when there is substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result from a hazard about which the employer knew or should have known.

The second company, also a manufacturer, was cited for serious and repeat violations of workplace safety standards following an inspection by OSHA’s Hartford Area Office. An inspection began on July 23, 2013, under OSHA’s Site Specific Targeting Program, resulting in $109,340 in proposed fines.

“The sizable fines proposed here reflect the breadth and gravity of these hazards and the fact that this employer has been cited previously for several of these conditions,” said Warren Simpson, OSHA’s area director in Hartford. “Left uncorrected, plant employees are exposed to hazards, such as electric shock, arc flashes, fire, eye and crushing injuries. It’s imperative that employers not just correct hazards, but effectively prevent their recurrence.”

Inspectors found similar violations to those cited in October 2009, including failing to train maintenance personnel on the practices of using the personal protective equipment required for protection against electric shock, arc flashes or arc blasts while trouble-shooting or working on live electrical equipment; use fixed wiring, rather than extension cords, to power equipment and prevent blocked access to an electrical disconnect; provide designated workers with annual hands-on fire extinguisher training; and review the hazardous energy control program annually to prevent machine startup during maintenance. These violations resulted in $53,900 in proposed fines.

The company was given 15 serious citations, with $55,440 in fines, regarding new violations, including failing to prevent the plant electrician from working on live electrical equipment before it was deenergized; provide a program to inspect the hydrogen piping systems for defects or hazards; inspect protective gloves every six months; and store flammable chemicals properly. Additional serious citations include failing to dispose of flammable rags properly; provide a written chemical hazard communication program; label hazardous chemical containers; guard moving machine parts; prevent excess air pressure for a cleaning hose; provide protective goggles while operating a cleaning hose; provide eye protection for those working with corrosive chemicals; periodically inspect slings used to lift dies; and additional electrical hazards.

Both companies have 15 business days from receipt of its failure-to-abate notices, citations, and proposed penalties to comply, meet informally with OSHA’s area director, or contest the findings before the independent Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission.

Information about controlling electrical hazards is available at

OSHA Rulemaking Update

Public comments requested

1. Procedures for handling retaliation complaints under the Food Safety Modernization Act

OSHA has published an interim final rule establishing procedures and time frames for handling retaliation complaints under the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). OSHA invites the public to submit comments on the interim final rule.

FSMA, signed into law Jan. 2011, provides employees who disclose information about a possible violation of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act with protection against retaliation from businesses engaged in the manufacture, processing, packing, transporting, distribution, reception, holding, or importation of food.

This interim final rule establishes procedures, burdens of proof, remedies, and statutes of limitations similar to other whistleblower protection statutes that OSHA administers.

Individuals may submit comments electronically at the Federal eRulemaking Portal or via mail or facsimile. See the Federal Register notice for details. Comments must be submitted by April 14, 2014.

OSHA enforces the whistleblower provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act and 21 other statutes protecting employees who report violations of various workplace, commercial motor vehicle, airline, nuclear, pipeline, environmental, railroad, public transportation, maritime, consumer product, motor vehicle safety, health care reform, corporate securities, food safety, and consumer financial reform regulations. Additional information is available here.

2. Proposed rule to improve tracking of workplace injuries and illnesses

OSHA has announced that the comment period on the proposed rule to improve workplace safety and health through improved tracking of workplace injuries and illnesses will close on March 10, 2014. The comment period was originally scheduled to close March 8. However, this date falls on a Saturday. OSHA will accept comments submitted by March 10 as timely submittals.

The proposed rule would amend OSHA’s recordkeeping regulations to add requirements for the electronic submission of injury and illness information that employers are already required to keep.

Comments may be submitted electronically at the Federal eRulemaking Portal or by mail or facsimile. See the Federal Register notice for more details.

3. Proposed rule to extend compliance date for crane operator certification requirements

OSHA has issued a proposed rule to extend the compliance date for the crane operator certification requirement by three years to Nov. 10, 2017. The proposal would also extend to the same date the existing phase-in requirement that employers ensure that their operators are qualified to operate the equipment.

OSHA issued a final standard on requirements for cranes and derricks in construction work on Aug. 9, 2010. The standard requires crane operators on construction sites to meet one of four qualification/certification options by Nov. 10, 2014. After OSHA issued the standard, a number of parties raised concerns about the qualification/certification requirements. After conducting several public meetings, OSHA decided to extend the enforcement date so that the certification requirements do not take effect during potential rulemaking or cause disruption to the construction industry.

Comments may submitted electronically at the Federal e-Rulemaking Portal or by facsimile or mail. See the Federal Register notice for submission details and additional information about this proposed rule. Comments must be submitted by March 12, 2014.

OSHA held three stakeholder meetings on operator certification/qualification issues in April 2013 and posted detailed notes of the meetings here. A list of frequently asked questions are also posted on OSHA’s Cranes and Derricks in Construction Web page to provide additional clarification and address some comments and concerns raised by stakeholders.

OSHA Issues 2014 Inspection Plan

Aims to reduce injuries and illnesses at high-hazard workplaces

OSHA has issued its annual inspection plan under the Site-Specific Targeting 2014 program to direct enforcement resources to workplaces where the highest rates of injuries and illnesses occur.

The SST program is one of OSHA’s main programmed inspection plans for high-hazard, non-construction workplaces that have 20 or more workers. The SST plan is based on data collected from a survey of 80,000 establishments in high-hazard industries.

“By focusing our inspection resources on employers in high hazard industries who endanger their employees, we can prevent injuries and illnesses and save lives,” says Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health Dr. David Michaels.

As part of the SST-14 program, OSHA is conducting a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the program based on 1,260 randomly selected establishments.

Programmed inspections of nursing and personal care establishments will continue under OSHA’s Nursing and Personal Care Facilities National Emphasis Program.

In addition to the SST program, OSHA implements both national and local emphasis inspection programs, which include programmed inspections, to target high-risk hazards and industries. OSHA currently has 13 National Emphasis Programs that intensify inspections on hazards or industries such as lead, silica, shipbreaking, trenching/excavations, and process safety management, as well as approximately 140 Regional and Local Emphasis Programs.